Author Archive

Task Group: MAKING BATIK BOJONEGORO

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Making batik bojonegoro

 

On June 2013 yesterday, we have completed interviews with entrepreneurs batik in Bojonegoro, precisely on the highway dander. Here’s the information that we get from the interview, in which the four of us are defi, vita, elok, nurul with Mr. yoyok.

*Reporter: Asker

*Keynote Speaker: Mr. yoyok

-Questioner: “Assalamu’alaikum  sir., we want students IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, few know

about the Mr wrestled this business! ”

-Keynote Speaker: “Wa’alaikumsalam, Yes please!”

-Questioner: “sir, when you have start a business of batik?”

-Keynote Speaker: “About four years ago, I set up this business!”

-Questioner: “it had been four years yes Sir!”

-Keynote Speaker: “Yeah, four years!”

-Questioner: “There are any motive Bojonegoro and a Sir who owned a lot popular society Bojonegoro, sir ? ”

-Keynote Speaker: “There are many motives yes, there Gastro Rinonce, Corn Miji Gold, Mlimis

Mukti, Dahono Munggal Parang, Parang Jembur Rinandar Sekar, Pari

Sumilah, smart Thengul, Sata Gondo Wangi, Sekar Teak, but the

much-loved community or the buyer’s motives Teak Sekar, so that

Bojonegoro not fond of the course, the buyer is usually a

were from out of town. ”

-Questioner: “So where is the center of batik making Bojonegoro sir?”

-Keynote Speaker: “The headquarters are in Njono, precisely Kec.Temayang, Kab. Bojonegoro. ”

-Questioner :What Batik Supplies and How to make batik bojonegoro sir?

-Keynote Speaker:

A. Batik Supplies

Batik equipment has not changed much. Judging from the equipment and how to do it, batik can be classified as a work that is both traditional.

1) Gawangan

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Gawangan is a tool for hooking and spread mori while in batik. Gawangan made ​​of wood or bamboo. Gawangan should be made such that a strong, lightweight, and easy to move.

2) The pendulum.

Pendulum is made of tin, wood, or stone placed in the bag. Principal function is to hold the pendulum new mori in batik is not easily displaced when blown by the wind or are interested in batik accidentally.

3) Frying Pan 

Pans are utensils weeks to thaw the night. Pan made ​​of steel or metal clay. Pan should be stemmed so easily raised and lowered from the fireplace without using other tools.

4) Stove   

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Stove is a tool for making fire. Stoves commonly used are oil-fired stove. But sometimes this stove can be replaced with a small gas stove, which uses charcoal brazier, and others. This serves as a fireplace stove and heating the ingredients used to make batik.

5) linens

Tablecloth is a cloth to cover the thighs being exposed to droplets batik summer night when blown or time batik canting.

6) Filter Night

Sieve is a tool for filtering hot night with a lot of dirt. If the night is not filtered, dirt can interfere with the flow of the night at the end of canting. Meanwhile, when the night is filtered, dirt can be removed so it does not interfere with the course of the night at the end when it is used for batik canting.

There are various forms of sieve, the finer the better because the more dirt will be left behind. Thus, the net will be a hot night of dirt when used for batik.

7) Canting

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Canting is a tool used to move or take fluids, made ​​of copper and bamboo as a handle. This canting batik patterns used to write with liquid night. Currently, canting slowly using Teflon material.

8) Mori

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Mori is the basic material of batik made ​​from cotton. Mori quality assortment and determine the merits of its kind batik cloth produced. Mori necessary adjusted to the desired length of the short fabric.

There is no definitive measure of the length of cloth because the cloth is usually measured traditionally. The traditional measure called the Handkerchief. Handkerchief is a handkerchief, usually square in shape.

Thus, the size of the square is called sekacu mori, taken from the mori widths. Therefore, the long sekacu of a different kind will mori length mori sekacu of other types.

But in the present, the size is rarely used. Easier for people to use the square meter size to determine the length and width of the cloth. This measure has been applied nationally and ultimately easier for consumers when buying a batik cloth. This method can be used to reduce misunderstandings and the perception in the trading system.

9) Night (Candle)

Night (candle) is a material that is used for batik. Actually, not a night out (lost) because in the end the night will be taken back to mbabar process, the process of batik cloth until batikan be. Night used for batik is different from the night (candles) regular. Night to be quickly absorbed batik fabric, but can be easily separated when pelorodan process.

10) Dhingklik (Seating)

Dhingklik (seating) is a place to sit batik. Usually made of bamboo, wood, plastic, or metal. Currently, the seat can be easily purchased in stores.

11) Natural Dyes

Natural dyes are dyes that are used for batik. In some places batik, natural dyes are still maintained, especially if they want to get distinctive colors, which can not be obtained from artificial colors. Everything natural is special, and even advanced technology can not match something natural.

That’s the kind of batik equipment that must exist. Batik process requires considerable time, especially if the fabric is very broad and coraknya dibatik quite complicated.

B. Batik process

Here is a batik process that sequentially from beginning to end. Naming or mention how batik work in each region can vary, but the core is doing the same.

1) Ngemplong

batikk

Ngemplong is the initial or preliminary stages, beginning with a wash cloth. The goal is to eliminate the kanji. Then proceed with pengeloyoran, which include cloth to castor oil or peanut oil that is already in the straw ash. Cloth put in castor oil so that the fabric becomes weak, so that the absorption of the dye is higher.

After going through the above process, given fabric starch and dried. Furthermore, the process pengemplongan, which hammered cloth to smooth fabric lining for easy dibatik.

2) Nyorek  or  Memola

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Nyorek or memola is the process of copying or making a pattern on top of the cloth motif by copying existing patterns, or commonly referred to as ngeblat. Pattern is usually created on top of parchment paper first, and was traced to the pattern on the cloth. This stage can be done directly on the fabric or trace them using a pencil or canting. But for the coloring process can work well, do not break, and perfect, then the process needs to be repeated on the side batikannya fabric underneath. This process is called algae.

3) Mbathik

Mbathik a later stage, by night carved batik cloth, starting from Nglowong (draw the lines outside of the pattern) and Isen, Isen (fill patterns with various shapes). In the process of Isen, Isen there nyecek term, which makes the stuffing in a pattern that was made by way of giving the points (nitik). There is also the term nruntum, which is almost the same as Isen, Isen, but more complicated.

4) Nembok

nembok

Nembok is the process of covering the parts that should not be exposed to the basic color, in this case blue color, using a night. Sections were covered with a thick layer of night as if it is a retaining wall.

5) Medel

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Medel is a fabric dyeing process that has dibatik to color liquid repeatedly to get the desired color.

6) ngerok and Mbirah

 batik

In this process, a night on the cloth carefully scraped off using a metal plate, and then the fabric is rinsed with clean water. After that, the fabric aerated.

7) Mbironi

 mbironi

Mbironi is covered in blue and Isen, Isen cecek a pattern or points using the night. In addition, there is also ngrining process, ie the process of filling in the yet tinged with a certain motive. Typically, ngrining done after the dyeing process is done.

8) Menyoga

Menyoga derived from the saga, which is a kind of wood that is used to get the color brown. The way is to dip a cloth into the mixture brown.

9) Nglorod

nglorod

Nglorod is the final stage in the process of making

batik cloth and batik cap that uses the color barrier (night). In this stage, batik release the entire night (candles) by inserting cloth is old enough color into the boiling water. Once appointed, the fabric is rinsed with clean water and then cooling it to dry arginkan. The process of making batik is quite long. Beginning to the end of the process can involve several people, and the completion of a stage of the process is also time consuming. Therefore, it is natural that batik cloth worth quite high.

-Questioner: “Who’s the mr. who first had the idea to start a business

this? ”

-Keynote Speaker: “She is Mrs. Yoto, that idea she who made batik

This was a 9 motif, which is where the passing Jenogoroan Batik Design,

he who gave us the spirit to start a business Batik

Jenogoro this. ”

-Questioner: “So this batik public widely known than the city Bojonegoro

itself, can mean Sir was famous batik Bojonegoro yes! ”

-Keynote Speaker: “Yeah exactly like that, just last year we getting an award from the exhibition that we follow exactly in Surabaya. And this Bojonegoro batik alhamdlilah got another championship, which last year got a winner, and this year’s winner gets two. Surely if there is another exhibition we will Batik Typical roles include Bojonegoro this. ”

-Questioner: “Well, I am proud to be sir of the Bojonegoro

rich in culture.

How the father’s way of making batik? ”

-Keynote Speaker: “There are of hand painted, some from the paint directly with used special tools for batik processing course. ”

-Questioner: “How marketing goods sir?”

-Keynote Speaker:”The marketing can be directly delivered, can be purchased directly here,

Ordering can also according to the tastes of buyers yea, the size of the model, we serve live alone. ”

-Questioner: “Thank you for your time and information, assalamu’alikum!”

-Keynote Speaker: “Yeah equally, wa’alaikumsalam.”

**CONCLUSION:

Bojonegoro is a district that has a wealth of natural and cultural incredible. This wealth of inspiring Mother Mafudho Suyoto to make it as Batik motif. Through a design competition, it creates 9 Jonegoroan Batik motif.

Among others: Gastro Rinonce (Motif Refinery Oil and Gas), Corn Miji Gold (Corn Motif), Mliwis Mukti (Legendary Bird Motif Transcendental Angling Dharma, Mliwis White), Parang Dahono Munggal (Motif Tourism Eternal Fire, Fire Goda), Parang Sekar Jembul Rinandar (Cow Animal Motif), Pari Sumilak (Motif Rice), smart Thengul (Motif Puppet Thengul, typical Bojonegoro), Sata Gondo Wangi (Motif Tobacco), and Sekar Teak (Teak Leaves Motif).

Nine Jonegoroan motif above is a picture of the potential of Cultural and Natural Bojonegoro. For people who want to possess Jonegoro batik can get Temayang District, District Dander and Purwosari.

We as the future generation should be able to maintain and preserve the culture that we have here. Do not let the culture that we have we ignore and we do not preserve.

Name group:

1. Defi vidiawati                                             nim 10120170

2. Eni prasetyo Elok                                   nim 10120178

3. Vita nurdiyana                                         nim 10120184

4. Nurul hidayatin                                       nim 10120205

Strategies for Reading Comprehension Think-Pair-Share

images (4)by :[Lyman, 1981]

What Is Think-Pair-Share?
Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy developed by Frank Lyman and his colleagues in Maryland. It gets its name from the three stages of student action, with emphasis on what students are to be DOING at each of those stages.

How Does It Work?
1) Think. The teacher provokes students’ thinking with a question or prompt or observation. The students should take a few moments (probably not minutes) just to THINK about the question.

2) Pair. Using designated partners (such as with Clock Buddies), nearby neighbors, or a deskmate, students PAIR up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique.

3) Share. After students talk in pairs for a few moments (again, usually not minutes), the teacher calls for pairs to SHARE their thinking with the rest of the class. She can do this by going around in round-robin fashion, calling on each pair; or she can take answers as they are called out (or as hands are raised). Often, the teacher or a designated helper will record these responses on the board or on the overhead.

Why Should I Use Think-Pair-Share?
We know that students learn, in part, by being able to talk about the content. But we do not want that to be a free-for-all. Think-Pair-Share is helpful because it structures the discussion. Students follow a prescribed process that limits off-task thinking and off-task behavior, and accountability is built in because each must report to a partner, and then partners must report to the class.

Because of the first stage, when students simply THINK, there is Wait Time: they actually have time to think about their answers. Because it is silent thinking time, you eliminate the problem of the eager and forward students who always shout out the answer, rendering unnecessary any thinking by other students. Also, the teacher has posed the question, and she has EVERYONE thinking about the answer, which is much different from asking a question and then calling on an individual student, which leads some students to gamble they won’t be the one out of 30 who gets called on and therefore they don’t think much about the question. Students get to try out their answers in the private sanctuary of the pair, before having to “go public” before the rest of their classmates. Kids who would never speak up in class are at least giving an answer to SOMEONE this way. Also, they often find out that their answer, which they assumed to be stupid, was actually not stupid at all…perhaps their partner thought of the same thing. Students also discover that they rethink their answer in order to express it to someone else, and they also often elaborate on their answer or think of new ideas as the partners share. These, it seems, are powerful reasons to employ Think-Pair-Share in order to structure students’ thinking and their discussion.

 

The English Language: A Historical Introduction

by Charles Laurence BarberJoan C. BealPhilip A. Shaw

193515

Christopher‘s review

Sep 01, 11
Read in September, 2011
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: A Historical Introduction aims to cover the development of our speech over as wide a span as possible, from the murky past of the ancestral Indo-European language to the present day. Charles Barber was responsible for the first edition of 1993, but for this second edition Joan C. Beal and Philip A. Shaw have made some revisions and added an entire new chapter on Late Modern English. The book is targeted towards speakers of UK English, as many of the examples and the description of sound changes assumes a knowledge of that variant particularly.

This book is a mess. The authors want to tell a story in a friendly manner, but first they spend over 50 pages of a 300-page book describing the basics of linguistics (phonology, syntax, language change). This will scare away readers wanting a friendly introduction, and for readers wanting a more meaty text these linguistic concepts are presented in far too sketchy a fashion to really prepare them for serious study. After that introductory chapter, the actual description of English over time is little more than the authors throwing out trivia without forming a coherent, smoothly flowing text. It feels like something cobbled together.

The chapter on Late Modern English is interesting. While anyone can notice that e.g. Jane Austen was writing from a different time due to her quaint vocabulary, I had never noticed some syntactic changes that had occurred in English only after her time. Still, there must be better historical introductions to English out there.

INTERACT IN ENGLISH

INTRODUCTION

This is a Self-Access Package (SAP) to help you deal with the New Course in English “INTERACT IN ENGLISH”, a new strategy for learning.

Here are some worries expressed by students of ‘Mushroomed’ language centres after completing their language course.

Interact in English

“How have we been learning English? 
The following are some of the activities we may have been practising in the class rooms.

  • Learning literature thoroughly.
  • Learning structures.
  • translating for understanding.
  • drilling grammar rules.
  • testing grammar through isolated sentences.

What our teachers have been doing!

  • Making students listen to them.
  • Dictating answers to ensure correct responses.

These practices were based on certain, beliefs about language teaching in vogue in different decades. In the past it was believed that one could learn the use of language by getting the knowledge of the structures and vocabulary. Little attention was paid to the actual use of the language in the real world. We all have experienced that, at its best, these techniques, drawn from various approaches, gave the learner the ability to produce grammatically accurate sentences but without the ability to use the language effectively for communication.


How is the New Course “INTERACT IN ENGLISH” different? 
IT :

  • is based on the needs of the students and develops their language skills.
  • uses and extracts from real life situations.
  • is learner centred/learner active.
  • provides a number of opportunities for students to speak English.
  • helps the learner to become self-reliant.
  • provides opportunities for students to interact in groups and pairs.
  • promotes the students ability to communicate.
  • involves learners in more meaningful tasks.
  • makes use of audio tapes to develop listening skills.
  • sees the teacher as a manager of learning.

What is the Communicative approach ? 
The communicative approach is a way of teaching English in which students learn to communicate naturally and confidently. This means that they develop the skill to read, write, speak and listen to English in real life situations.

“INTERACT IN ENGLISH” is based on the `Communicative Approach (for further elaboration please contact me at my phone numbers given below.)


The new role of the teacher:

  • Does not dominate the class.
  • Sets up learning activities and tasks, thus provides opportunities for students active involvement.
  • Acts as a guide and advisor wherever necessary but does not constantly interfere.
  • Acts as a facilitator – making learning possible.

The new role of the student:

  • No longer a passive listener.
  • Takes an active part in class room activities.
  • Is encouraged to become self-reliant.
  • Finds learning meaningful since it is based on real needs.

The new role of Examinations :

  • Do not test memory.
  • Test communication skills in English.

Words by teacher:
I make a promise to each of my students that every effort will be made to ensure the highest standard of tuition possible. It’s not enough to just ‘teach’ you, I want to help English become yours!.

History of the English Language

A short history of the origins and development of English

by engishclub

The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders – mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from “Englaland” [sic] and their language was called “Englisc” – from which the words “England” and “English” are derived.

Map of Germanic invasions
Germanic invaders entered Britain on the east and south coasts in the 5th century.

Old English (450-1100 AD)

Example of Old English
Part of Beowulf, a poem written in Old English.

The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be,strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100.

Middle English (1100-1500)

Example of Middle English
An example of Middle English by Chaucer.

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today.

Modern English

Early Modern English (1500-1800)

Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world.

Example of Early Modern English

Hamlet’s famous “To be, or not to be” lines, written in Early Modern English by Shakespeare.

This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published.

 

Late Modern English (1800-Present)

The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth’s surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.

Varieties of English

From around 1600, the English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words “froze” when they reached America. In some ways, American English is more like the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. Some expressions that the British call “Americanisms” are in fact original British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost for a time in Britain (for example trash for rubbish, loan as a verb instead of lend, and fall for autumn; another example, frame-up, was re-imported into Britain through Hollywood gangster movies). Spanish also had an influence on American English (and subsequently British English), with words like canyonranchstampede and vigilante being examples of Spanish words that entered English through the settlement of the American West. French words (through Louisiana) and West African words (through the slave trade) also influenced American English (and so, to an extent, British English).

Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA’s dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology (including the Internet). But there are many other varieties of English around the world, including for example Australian English, New Zealand English, Canadian English, South African English, Indian English and Caribbean English.

The Germanic Family of Languages
Chart of the Germanic family of languages
English is a member of the Germanic family of languages.
Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family.

 

How To Make Money

Making Money Online

How to make money online?…Making money online has become one of the most popular subjects, due to the fact that the job market has left so many people out of work.

So, finding new ways to make a living is a necessity for so many people. Thankfully the Internet is offering a whole host of new and innovative way of making a living without ever leaving your home.

If you too are looking for a few ways to make money on your computer, the following 10 methods may help you get there.

1- Sell Your Skills and Expertise in an online marketplace

In today’s market, you’re able to make money selling more than just books through Amazon online marketplace or selling things on eBay. Today it is possible to offer your specialized skills in exchange for money. Not anymore you are restricted to searching for a long term or perhaps contract work using job sites such as Monster.com or classified sites like Craigslist.

The brand new type of freelancing sites make it possible for businesses seeking assistance to detail their tasks. Then freelance workers can place bids on these tasks, through which those businesses can pick.

Elance focuses on many methods from coding and article writing to consultation services as well as design and style, at the same time RentACoder concentrates on software programs, natch. If perhaps you’re a web designer, take a look at opportunities such as Design Outpost or LogoWorks. You don’t need to find the clients, they will find you.

2- Sell Your images on stock photography websites

If perhaps folks frequently make positive remarks about your photos, maybe you should try making money with your images. It’s never been easier to have your images before the general public, which in turn needless to say indicates a massive quantity of competitors, additionally it signifies it may be a good hassle-free method available for you in order to develop a supplementary revenue stream.

Exactly where would you publish and promote your images? You could try sites like Fotolia, Dreamstime, and Big Stock Photo.

3- Blog For Money

Regardless of the surge of weblogs, it really is difficult to find great authors who are able to write interesting and great posts on fascinating subjects rather quickly. How can you rise above the crowd? … Compose posts which are professional rather than extremely personalized (even though displaying some individuality can be a benefit).

4- Get Paid to AnswerQuestions

For those with answers, making extra money couldn’t be any easier. Nowadays, thanks to sites like webanswers, anyone can make money by answering questions. Simply register for free with any one of the question and answer sites and began to answer other people’s question.

5- Earn Money Filling Out Surveys

Perhaps the easiest way to earn money online is through getting paid to participate in paid online surveys.

Market research providers receive money from companies and corporations to collect opinions from their customers. Market research companies do that by conducting online surveys. They then distribute a portion of that money amongst panel members who take part in their online surveys.

Despite the fact that paid survey scams caused it to be more difficult for locate genuine paid surveys sites, you can still find a huge selection of established paid survey companies, prepared to compensate you for your thoughts and opinions.

6- Do Mystery Shopping

Mystery shopping is developing into a preferred option for businesses to gauge the performance of their employees. Despite the fact that one can find a great deal of diverse beliefs in regards to this, mystery shopping is without a doubt expanding as an industry.

As a shopper, you may be designated to go shopping as well as dining in various locations and account your experience. In accordance with particular projects, you are going to get compensated anywhere from around $30 to $300 or even more for each and every project.

Needless to say, the amount of money which you devote purchasing products or services is going to be refunded to you. Occasionally you are free to keep the merchandise you purchased, for free.

7- Get Paid To Review

Build a site or perhaps a weblog and write reviews of different products and services that you use. When your site becomes popular, you can monetize it with ads or even with paid reviews.

8- Produce and Sell E-Books

You can create e-books with regards to any subjects you like. For those with especial knowledge and expertise on certain topics, this is a great opportunity to make money. It doesn’t matter if it’s a recipe or perhaps a guide on fixing dishwashers, if it can help people, people will pay for it.

9- Flipping Website and Domain

Purchase decent domain names and re-sell to turn a profit. Another way would be to buy the domain, build a good website around it and when the site starts to receive some decent amount of traffic, sell it for a good price. It is really just like flipping properties.

People today like sites which are installed and operating, and so they do spend lots of money to buy such websites. Many hundreds of websites are purchased and sold every single day on websites just like Flippa.com.

10- Make Money Affiliate Marketing

affiliate marketing is perhaps one of the best online money making methods available today. You are essentially promoting other folk’s products to get a commission. One can find e-books on all kinds of subjects to sell as an affiliate on websites such as ClickBank and PayDotcom.

I hope these few money making ideas will be helpful to those of you who are trying to learn how to make money online.

An Integrative Review of the Evidence on Injection Aspiration

 Lippincott’s Evidence-Based Practice Network

Thirty years ago, when I was in my Bachelor’s program for nursing, I was taught to aspirate for intramuscular (I.M.) injections to make sure I didn’t puncture an artery or vein. I am confident that all of you reading this post were taught the same technique. The question we need to ask is, “Is the technique based on evidence or is it just the way it has always been done?”
In an integrative review published in the March issue of Nursing2012, To aspirate or not: An integrative review of the evidence, researchers examined the literature to determine if there was any evidence supporting the practice of aspiration for injections. The researchers used an integrative review methodology to review the literature. The integrative approach answers a targeted clinical question using a systematic search strategy and a rigorous appraisal method (Crawford & Johnson, 2012).

The results were not surprising; there was no research evidence to support the use of aspiration in giving I.M. or subcutaneous injections. The researchers recommended the following for consideration:

  • Aspiration is not indicated for subcutaneous injections of immunizations, heparin, and insulin
  • Aspiration is not indicated for I.M. injections of vaccines and immunizations
  • Aspiration may be indicated for I.M. injections of medications such as penicillin
  • Until a standard can be established, injection techniques must be individualized to the patient to prevent incorrect needle placement (Crawford & Johnson, 2012).

Unfortunately in nursing, we often practice a certain way because that is the way it has always been done. I applaud the work of the researchers who did this study; they are truly moving nursing practice forward based on evidence. Translating evidence into practice is a series of steps and the researchers have taken the first steps to appraise the evidence and recommend practice changes based on the evidence. It is up to each of us to take the evidence presented and integrate it into practice.

References
Crawford, C., Johnson, J. (2012). To aspirate or not: An integrative review of the evidence. Nursing2012 (42)3,20-25.