Author Archive

THE LANGUAGE OF PRESENTATIONS

 

Gambar

Beginning

•Today, I’m going to talk about/discuss …

•My topics today is …

 

Ordering

•First of all …

•To begin with …

•Firstly, … Secondly, …Thirdly, … Fourthly, …

 

Changing to the next part of your presentation

•I’d like to move on to …

•I’d like to look now at …

•The next issue I would like to focus on is …

 

Adding another point

•In addition …

•As well as … there is also …

•Furthermore, …

 

Giving an example

•For example, …

•For instance, …

 

Concluding

•In conclusion, …

•Let me conclude by saying …

•To sum up …

 

Closing

•Thank you for your attention.

•Thank you for listening.

 

Advertisements

How to express opinion in English

There are many ways to give your opinions when speaking English. The exact English expression you use depends on how strong your opinion is.

Giving your opinion neutrally

“I think…”

“I feel that…”

“In my opinion…”

“As far as I’m concerned…”

“As I see it…”

“In my view…”

“I tend to think that…”

 

Giving a strong opinion

“I’m absolutely convinced that…”

“I’m sure that…”

“I strongly believe that…”

“I have no doubt that…”

 

English expressions for asking someone’s opinion

“What do you think?”

“What’s your view?”

“How do you see the situation?”

 

Agreeing in English

 

In English conversations, people often say that they agree or disagree with each other. There are many ways of agreeing or disagreeing and the one you use depends on how strongly you agree or disagree. Here’s a list of some common expressions.

 

Agreeing in English

“I think you’re right.”

“I agree with you.”

Strong agreement

“I couldn’t agree with you more.”

“You’re absolutely right.”

“I agree entirely.”

“I totally agree.”

Partly agreeing

“I agree with you up to a point, but…”

“That’s quite true, but…”

“I agree with you in principle, but…”

 

Disagreeing

“I’m not sure I agree with you.”

“(I’m afraid) I don’t agree.”

“(I’m afraid) I disagree.”

“(I’m afraid) I can’t agree with you.”

“(I’m afraid) I don’t share your opinion.”

Note :When you disagree with someone in English, you can often sound more polite by using a phrase such as “I’m afraid…”

 

Disagreeing strongly

“I don’t agree at all.”

“I totally disagree.”

“I couldn’t agree with you less.”

a1

How to Study for an English Exam

 

Studying for an English exam can be either a breeze or a tremendous challenge, depending on your aptitude, interest level, and teacher. The best thing you can do is to read attentively, take good notes, and interact with the text throughout the unit. Then, when you get to the point of actually studying, all you have to do is to review the rubric and reread key portions of the text.

Instructions

o    1

Develop good reading habits. Read alertly, using self-discipline to stop your mind from drifting. Keep up with the reading, and review any other materials the teacher gives you. Also, take notes on the story. Studying for an English test ideally starts on the first day of reading a text.

o    2

Interact with the text you are reading. Ask yourself what sorts of questions the teacher is likely to ask. Include questions on basic things you should know, such as the outline of the story, the different characters and their motivations, and anything else central to the story. If necessary, write the questions and answers down.

o    3

Pay attention to what the teacher tells you outright, as well as any hints he drops. The goal of a good teacher is not to catch you in an error, but to make sure that you understands the parts of the story that he feels are most important. Even if he doesn’t give you a rubric for the test, he might just give you a hint about what to study.

o    4

Review key plot and character points. Write out or say out loud the key events of the story. Describe all the characters, including physical traits, motivations, allegiances, and fates.

o    5

Study key quotes. Most teachers emphasize certain quotes in a book which hold special symbolic, emotional, thematic, or dramatic significance. Be able to recognize these quotes and discuss who said them, where they are from, and what they mean.

o    6

Use a book summary product such as SparkNotes or CliffsNotes. Although these are rarely as good as hand-written notes, they can help you fill in gaps in your memory, and offer a good last-minute option. They also may offer ideas you didn’t think of before.


Read more:
How to Study for an English Exam | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4451445_study-english-exam.html#ixzz2S0Ygr1zE

How to learn vocabulary

 

Introduction

Learning vocabulary is a very important part of learning a language. The more words you know, the more you will be able to understand what you hear and read; and the better you will be able to say what you want to when speaking or writing.

Which words to learn

Every day you hear or read many new English words. You also find them in your dictionary when you are translating from your own language. You can’t possibly learn all these new words, so your first problem is to decide which ones to concentrate on. Here are some suggestions:

  • learn the words that are important to the subjects you are studying
  • learn the words that you read or hear again and again
  • learn the words that you know you will often want to use yourself
  • do not learn words that are rare or not useful (your teacher can help you with this)

How to learn words

Once you have chosen which words to learn, you next have to decide how you are going to learn them. Here are a few ideas:

  • write the words in a notebook (with their translations or definitions)
  • write the words and definitions on small cards
  • say the words many times (if you have an electronic dictionary you can hear how the word is pronounced)
  • put the words into different groups (you could use a graphic organiser)
  • write them in a file for use with a computer program
  • make associations (in pictures or with other words)
  • ask someone to test you
  • use the words in your own speaking or writing

Some students put a tick or cross in their dictionary next to every word they look up. The next time they turn to a page with a marked word, they quickly check to see if they remember the meaning of that word.

In all of the above ways, you are doing something with the words. It’s usually not enough to just read through a list of words with their definitions or translations and try to remember them. Most students find that they memorise words better if they do something with them. Even better is to try and learn the word in a typical combination with other words. Learning that to apologize means to say sorry is a good start, but it’s much better to learn a whole expression containing the word, e.g. He apologized for being late. Not only is this often easier to remember, but you are also learning some very important information on how the word is used.

Learning for vocabulary tests

The previous section on this page gives general advice on how to learn the words that you have chosen as important for you. Often, however, you will be given a set of words by your teacher and told to learn them for a vocabulary test. In this case you need to be sure exactly how you will be tested, because this will influence how you learn the words. There are several ways that the teacher might test your vocabulary learning, but the ways are broadly divided into two categories:

  • You will be given the word and have to:
    • write a definition
    • use it in an example sentence
    • translate it into your language
  • You will be given:
    • a definition
    • a gapped example sentence
    • the translation in your language

and you have to write the English word.

If you do a vocabulary test from the second group above, then in most cases you will need to learn the exact spelling of the word and will lose marks if you misspell it. As with all tests, be sure to ask the teacher exactly how you will be tested and exactly how you will be graded. You will then avoid wasting time studying something that you will be not be tested on.

Learning vocabulary by reading

The way you learned very many of the words in your own language was by meeting them in the books and magazines you read. The context of a new word in a sentence or story was often enough for you to guess the meaning. Meeting the word again and again in your reading helped you learn it for use in your own speaking and writing. Doing lots of extra reading for pleasure – both fiction and non-fiction – is an excellent way to learn new English words, too. But choose books that you find quite easy to read. Difficult stories or texts that you struggle to understand will not help you to develop your vocabulary the natural way. But remember: to learn new words from reading you have to read A LOT!


More information about learning words

The vocabulary you know can be divided into two groups – passive vocabulary and active vocabulary. Passive vocabulary contains all the words that you understand when you read or listen, but which you do not use (or cannot remember) in your own writing and speaking. Active vocabulary is all the words you understand, plus all the words that you can use yourself. Your active vocabulary, in English and your own language, is probably much smaller than your passive vocabulary.

The more you work on learning a word, as suggested above, the more likely it is that it will become part of your active vocabulary.

Things to know about the words you learn

Usually the first things you learn about a new English word are what it means and its translation in your own language. But there are other things you need to find out before you can say that you know a word like a native speaker does. For example, you have to learn:

  • how it is spelled
  • how it is pronounced
  • how it is inflected (i.e. how it changes if it is a verb, noun or adjective)
  • other grammar information about it
  • how it collocates (i.e. what other words are often used with it)
    if it has a particular style or register
  • the context in which it is most likely to be used

Native speakers learn these things about words by hearing them and reading them again and again. This is the best way for you to learn them, too.

How to learn grammar

Introduction

Grammar is an aspect of language about which learners have different opinions. Some learners are very interested in finding out or learning grammar rules and doing lots of grammar exercises. Others hate grammar and think it is the most boring part of learning a new language. Whatever opinion you have, however, you cannot escape from grammar; it is in every sentence you read or write, speak or hear. Grammar is simply the word for the rules that people follow when they use a language. We need those rules in the same way as we need the rules in a game. If there are no rules, or if everybody follows their own rules, the game would soon break down. It’s the same with language; without rules we would not be able to communicate with other people.

So you cannot escape from grammar, but the key question here is: what is the best way to learn grammar? You can learn the rules of a game by simply playing the game. You will certainly make mistakes; you may even get hurt. Eventually, however, you will know how to play. Of course, the rules of a language are very much more complicated than the rules of any game, but in fact this is exactly how you learned your own language. Nobody taught you the rules of your mother tongue as you were growing up but now you never make a grammar mistake.

It is possible to learn a second language in the same natural way, if you have enough time and you live in the right place. For example, if you are a Korean boy and you move to Russia at age 6, attend a Russian school, play every day with Russian friends, you will probably learn all you need to know about Russian grammar by the age of 15 without ever having a grammar lesson or reading a grammar book.

Most people learning a new language do not have so much time and such an ideal situation; So what IS the best way to learn English grammar? Unfortunately, there is no easy answer to the question. There are just as many different opinions about teaching grammar as there are about learning grammar. Many teachers believe in the importance of grammar lessons devoted to a study of language rules and lots of practice exercises. Other teachers feel that grammar is best learned by doing different language activities without focussing so directly on the rules. Whatever your opinion about grammar, and whichever is the way you are taught, here is some advice that may help you to learn grammar more effectively.

What you can do

  • Be aware of grammar. Think about grammar. Notice the aspects of English grammar that are the same as or very similar to those in your language. (The use of the articles in German, for example, is similar to their use in English.) Notice also the way that English expresses an idea differently to how it is done in your language. For example, English uses the present perfect to express a period of time that started in the past and continues in the present (e.g. I have had this watch for 10 years). Many other languages use the present tense to express the same idea; (e.g. German: Ich habe diese Uhr seit 10 Jahren.) If you notice grammar similarities and differences, you will probably learn the rules more quickly.
  • Read a lot of English books – this may sound strange but in fact all the time you are reading English (and also listening to English), you are taking in models of correct grammar that will help you in your own writing and speaking. It will help you when you express your ideas and when you come to check your work. Of course, it is even better if you can read with the grammatical awareness discussed in the last paragraph. By this I mean that you say to yourself from time to time: Ah, so that’s how you do this in English!
  • Concentrate on the aspects of grammar you personally find most difficult. (If you don’t have any idea what aspects of English grammar cause you most problems, ask your teacher!) Particularly in your writing you can focus on these aspects for special care and attention when editing your work. It is more difficult in speaking, of course, but even here you can sometimes take a fraction more time to try and get that particular element right. For example, if you are retelling a story in the present tense, you could keep reminding yourself that you need an -s in the 3rd person singular.
  • If you don’t like to do grammar exercises or to be taught grammar, then it’s more important that you follow the advice in the paragraphs above. You should try to work out the patterns and rules of the language for yourself.
  • If you do like to do grammar exercises, then go ahead. But being good at grammar exercises does not mean you will not make mistakes in your own work. You could be like someone who has learned how to play tennis by reading a book, but once he is on the tennis court, he can’t hit the ball properly. If you decide to do grammar exercises, try to go beyond just filling in gaps or doing multi-choice answers. Write out some sentences of your own that follow the same rule that you are practising.

There are thousands of grammar pages on the web, including the pages on this site. Click here to go to a short index of these sites.

If you can use these verbs automatically, it will give you more time to concentrate on other aspects of what you want to say. They are easy to learn if you say them to yourself many times.

  • Only read this last section if you are very, very interested in grammar!

There is a computer program called a concordancer which can help you learn about how words are used and how grammar works. When you type words into the concordancer, it shows you hundreds examples of those words in short sentence extracts. For example, if you want to learn more about how the present perfect continuous is used, you can type in the words I have been and the computer will give you a list of extracts from books or newspapers containing those words. For example:

    • I have been waiting for two months for a letter from my pen-friend.
    • I have been living in Germany for 3 years.
    • I have been learning English since 1999.

Best Places to Study English Abroad

 

The Universal Language

English is the universal language. It facilitates businesses, is used by industry leaders and is primarily considered one of the most widely spoken languages of the world. But not everybody has it as a mother language, an estimate of 750 million people speak English as a foreign language. In addition, over one billion people currently learn English that in fact, it is estimated that one in four people studying English is a foreigner. This somehow illustrates and explains why a number of students seek to study English abroad.

Global Competence

With the current shifting of global economies, the use of the English language especially in business has become a basic. For those who seek global competence but are not born with English as a mother tongue, studying the language in a foreign English speaking country is a common undertaking.

Although there are countries like the Philippines and South Africa that has it as a second language but are known for having English programs. It is still best advised to study English abroad in countries like the United States, Australia, United Kingdom and Canada. These English speaking countries are but among the best places to learn the language – and practice it at a daily basis. Here are some of the best places to study English abroad:

United States

United States tops the list for English language studies. The country, being cosmopolitan and multi-cultural presents a venue where the use of the language is a bit neutral. Veered away from the common dictions noticeable from other English speaking nationalities, a study English abroad program from the United States is highly competent. It is very identical to the globally accepted business English.

http://s2.hubimg.com/u/7366337_f520.jpg

Source: http://www.state-flags-usa.com/

Canada, United Kingdom and More

Next to the list are Canada and the United Kingdom, as joined by Ireland, England and Scotland. These countries and cities are known for linguistics as well. What’s more appealing in these places is the rich western heritage. It would be best to learn English with a little kick of western culture. Finer, more sophisticated English can be obtained from language programs from these places. Canada also has a far more appealing environment. It has been named by the United Nations as among the best places to live – and in extension to study in.

http://s3.hubimg.com/u/7366374_f520.jpg

Source: http://theplanetd.com/canadian-stereotypes-and-mis…

Choose Wisely

In the end, if you are looking for the best possible places to study English abroad the primary requirement that you must look at is whether the country has it as a mother language. It defeats the purpose of learning it if you can’t use the language on a daily basis. The aforementioned places are but considered to be among the best. Although, each offers a different environment; the closest to your culture or the targeted country of employment basically has the best shot. Choose wisely.

The Best Way to Learn English Quickly

 

Have you ever wondered why children seem to be able to learn to speak English a lot faster than adults? The reason is mainly because they don’t have the fear associated with learning a new language that adults have. The biggest problem that many people face when they start to learn English is a fear of not being able to master the language. They are afraid that they will not be able to pronounce the words correctly or that they will make a mistake that others will find funny and laugh about. Practice is the key to learning any language. You must practice as much as you can and learn from your mistakes, which are bound to happen.

Even if you attend classes to help with your English learning, there are many other resources you can use. The Internet has many sites that offer free instruction in English along with practice exercises and worksheets you can use to complement your classes. If you can, develop a friendship with a native English speaker with whom you can practice and pick up the various nuances of the language and use the rules of correct grammar.

One of the best ways of learning English is to become immersed in the language. If you are learning the language from your native country, you should try to watch English television. However, the best way is to live in a place where everyone speaks English. Then you won’t have any choice but pick up the language. Take notes in English, read English books and listen to English music. Speak the language as much as you can to give you practice. As you start developing your language skills, you will find yourself “thinking” in English, which is important.

Watching English language television and films is an excellent way to learn the language. If your TV has closed captioning capability, you could watch the programs in your own language and read the English words on the bottom of the screen. Not only will you increase your vocabulary, but you will also improve the flow of your speech. Cartoons and educational programs for children are also great ways of learning the vocabulary and rules of grammar. Another method is to use books for beginning readers in English because these books usually have pictures with the English words to accompany them.

Listening to songs in English is an effective way of learning the language as well. Learn the lyrics of the songs and sing along with the singer as you listen. You can get the words to many popular songs online. Study as often as possible to increase your vocabulary.

As you read from English texts, record yourself and then listen to how you pronounce the words. On many online sites there are recorded conversations that you can listen to and read along with. Then when you play back the recording of your own reading, you will be able to see where you make mistakes or areas where you have done well. Even though no one likes listening to the sound of their own voice it is an important part of learning to speak English.