Ways to overcome belly fat

belly-fat-768-jpg_234029  By Lauren Tumas Shumacher

Time to say goodbye to belly fat! Distended abdomen (caused by fluid trapped between the cells of your body) can arise due to poor digestion, too much sodium, too menstruation. But still, the experts say, as long as you keep eating, belly fat can then be avoided. Good news, is not it?

Water with lemon juice
When distended, many people are drinking less, but that they should be doing just the opposite. David Grotto, author of health, said that hold water is the way our body avoid dehydration. If you have belly fat, it’s time to squeeze the water out. Drinking water with lemon juice will help reduce the amount of salt retained in the body. Make sure to drink straight from the glass, with a straw so you do not put extra air.

Celery
Over the years, celery has been used to treat digestive and intestinal gas control as well known to reduce the levels of the chemical trapping of liquid. “Celery has water content and detoxification systems, which can help remove toxins in the body,” says Grotto. In addition to celery, other vegetables are also beneficial is cucumber, parsley, and other green leafy plants. Remember, cooked vegetables are easier to digest than raw.

Watermelon
All types of melons are actually beneficial for the body, but watermelon contains 92 percent water. According to Grotto, watermelon also has diuretic properties (makes to pee) and a source of potassium. “The balance of sodium and potassium are important in controlling belly fat,” he said. Try mixing lemon, cucumber, watermelon, and rosemary to create a flat stomach. (But do not be surprised if only so often you visit the toilet after drinking the mixture.)

Rosemary and turmeric
Rosemary has long been used as a medicine ranging from headache, toothache, to high blood pressure. But this plant is also efficacious in reducing gas in the intestines and aid digestion, says Jackie Newgent, a culinary nutritionist. He suggested, put rosemary into tea, or combine with celery or parsley. In Asia, turmeric is known as pain relievers and inflammation. Turmeric can also fight abdominal pain and bloated stomach, Newgent said.

Beans and lentils
Most patients who come to the potbellied Grotto consume too much sodium and potassium, and fiber deficiency. Lentils, with a high fiber content, is a good choice. Newgent added, nuts contain protein and high estrogen, which can reduce bloated because of menstruation.

Yoghurt
Many people are sensitive to lactose, so it’s better to drink than milk yogurt. Moreover yogurt that has active cultures in it. “Yogurt is half-digested, milk and sugar in it already broke, while in the milk is not so, that could create a gas and bloated,” said Newgent.

Tip prevent bloated forever:
To make your stomach flat every day, here’s Grotto and Newgent suggestions:

1) Less supply of sodium and choose fresh foods, not packaged foods.
2) Limit your alcohol. When you drink alcohol, you could be dehydrated, so the body tries to retain fluid.
3) To bloated due to constipation (constipation), focus on foods that hold water.
4) Your lifestyle can affect. Make sure you do not lack of sleep, and spend 30 minutes a day of exercise in order to move fluids in your body.
5) Visit your doctor if you are not missing too bloated.

Source: id.yahoo.com

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UEC Held Speech Contest High School Level

image_20_uec  United English College (UEC) IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro English speech contest held (Speech Contest) High School Level as Karisidenan Bojonegoro, which includes Bojonegoro, Tuban, Lamongan and Blora, Sunday (05/05/2013).

The event was themed “New Spirit New Innovation” is divided into three stages, namely the registration and selection, Speech Contes top 15 finalists and Finals.

“So Thursday May 2nd, we do the selection of the 79 participants to 15, then Sunday, May 5th Speech Contest finalists and selected 15 of the 5, and the final day,” said one of the organizers committee, M. Rosyid Ridho.

According to him, this event was the first time for students, and is intended as a vehicle to develop students ‘English language abilities and also promotion IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro campus. Theme “New Spirit New Innovation” own chosen because the students after the National Examination has feeling fresh and full of new vigor.
Winners drawn five champions champions won by Arjuna Krishna 1 of SMAN 2 Bojonegoro, Champion 2 achieved Sofhia Tri M of SMAN 2 Tuban, won 3rd Place Siti Aisyah Rohmatin of SMAN 1 Sumberrejo, 1 Runner up won Sri Kinesti Lintang of SMAN MT Bojonegoro 2 runner up achieved Janeke Waromi of SMK Migas Cepu.

The first prize winner gets money coaching Rp.1 million, champion 2 Rp.750.000, Champion 3 Rp.500.000, first runner up 200.000 , and second runner up 150.000 and also received a trophy plus charter for each champion. Speech Contest was also enlivened by the music scene and bands from SMEs (UKM) music IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro.

Source : http://www.blokbojonegoro.com

Question Words

DIN015  Question Words are words used to form interrogative sentence. The words include words question is What, Who, Whom, Whose, Which, Why, Where, When, and How.

Pattern of Question Words

QW + Modal + Subject + Verb + Object

What (What / who):

-> Asking nouns (names of people)

example:

– What did she buy?

– What are you looking for?

– What will they build here?

– What is your name?
– What is his name?

-> Asking job or profession

example

– What is he?

– What does the man do?

– What are you doing?

Who (Who / others)

->Asking Subject name (actor) / person doing

example:

– Who takes my pen?
– Who put this book on the table?

– Who cleaned this room?

->Asking Object (The person who became the object)

(the PRESENT tense)

example:

– Who do you mean?

– Who is the man?

– Who are you talking about?

Whom  (Who / others): Asking Object

(person to object) (its tense than PRESENT)

example:

– Whom will you send the letter to?

– Whom did you talk to?

– Whom have they invited to the party?

– Whom did she go with?

Whose (Owned / had anyone): To ask the owner of an object

example:

– Whose pen is this?

– Whose dictionary can I borrow?

– I found this wallet in my bag. Whose is this?

– Whose brother will take care of the children?

Which (Which): Asking options

example:

– Which pen is yours?

– Which is your bag?

– Which man will you support?

– Which girl sang the song?

Why(why): To ask the cause or reason

example:

– Why do you come late?

– Why does she look so sad?

– Why don’t you join us?
– Why didn’t he repair that chair?

Where (Where): Asking Place

example

– Where did he go last night?

– Where will they go on this vacation?
– Where shall I put this fan? Where is your mother?

When (When): Asking the time of the activity

example:

– When you were born?

– When did he arrive from Singapore?

– When will they arrive in Japan?
– When did you send the letter to him?

How

->  Say hello / state (how’s / state …)

example:

– How are you this morning?

– How are your parents?

– How are you doing?
– How do you do?

-> Asking how (how to …)

– How did he play football?

– How does he go to school?
– How did she cut the tree?

-> Asking price / number of objects

what price …: much (uncountable)

how much …: many (countless)

– How much is this book?

– How much coffee do you put in my glass?

– How much do you pay for this pen?
– How many this apples?

-> Asking age (how old …)

– How old are you? How old is your grand mother?
– How old is the building?

-> Asking the nature of objects (how / how / se … [adjective] …)

– How high is the building?

– How deep is the river?

– How tall are you?
– How blue is your uniform?

-> Asking frequency (frequent, rare) (how often / rarely …)

– How often do you go to the library?

– How rare you take a bath?
– How often has your father angry with you?

-> Asking the duration (how long …)

– How long have you been waiting here?

– How long you take a bath?

– How long did he sleep?
– How long mother cook the cake?

That was the explanation of Question Words, I hope this article can be a source of reference for the readers. Thank you for your attention and if there are criticisms and suggestions to the author simply commented on the “comments”

PREPOSITIONAL VERBS & PHRASAL VERBS

ENGLIS Now we learn about “Prepositional  Verbs & Phrasal Verbs” and the example of Prepositional Verbs & Phrasal Verbs. So let’s read it.

PREPOSITIONAL VERBS

There are a very large number of combinations of verb+preposition. Prepositions always

have objects:

Please look after the children.

I’ve fallen for you in a big way.

In English, the preposition does not always come before its object; in certain kinds of

sentence, it can come at the end of the clause: What are you talking about?

Prepositional verbs are those which accept the passive and/or the pronominal question,

but not the adverbial question form.

PHRASAL VERBS

When a verb is used with an adverb particle the combination is called a phrasal verb.

There are a very large number of these in English. The meaning of a phrasal verb is often very

different from the meanings of the two words taken separately. In order to understand the

meaning of a phrasal verb, you may have to refer to the dictionary. Phrasal verbs can be

intransitive (not followed by a direct object) or transitive (followed by a direct object).

Examples.

break down (transitive)

get up (transitive)

sit down (transitive)

turn up (transitive)

Intransitives:

bring something up (=mention it)

kick somebody out (=expel him)

put something off (=postpone it)

throw something away (=accommodate him)

turn something down (=refuse it).

When a phrasal verb has a direct object, the two parts of the verb can usually be

separated: the adverb particle can be put before or after the object.

We’ll have to put off the party/put the party off.

Why don’t you throw away that stupid hat/throw that stupid hat away?

Could you put up my sister/put my sister up for three nights?

However, when the object is a pronoun, the adverb particle can only go after the object:

We’ll have to put it off.

Could you put her up?

Phrasal and prepositional verbs display certain phonological and syntactic differences.

PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERBS

There are a few verbs which consist of three parts: a base verb, an adverb particle and a

preposition: to get on with, to put up with, to check up on. These look complicated, but in fact,

they are used in the same way as any other prepositional verb. For example, to get on with

follows the same rules as to go with. Compare:

I get on well with Jill.

I often go to the theatre with Jill.

He’s difficult to put up with.

He’s difficult to work with

That was an explanation of Propositional verbs & phrasal verbs, I hope this article can be a source of reference for the readers. Thank you for your attention and if there are criticisms and suggestions to the author simply commented on the “comments”

Kind of Text

wordle-infoaccess_20080725-51 Hello reader. Now i will explain to you Kind of Text. So you must read it.

NARRATIVE

Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story

Generic Structure:

1. Orientation

2. Complication

3. Resolution

4. Reorientation

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Past Tense

2. Using action verb

3. Chronologically arranged

RECOUNT

Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event

Generic Structure:

1. Orientation

2. Event(s)

3. Reorientation

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Past Tense

2. Using action verb

3. Using adjectives

Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.

The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

DESCRIPTIVE

Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.

Dominant Generic Structure:

1. Identification

2. Description

Language Features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense

2. Using action verb

3. Using adverb

4. Using special technical terms

REPORT

Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.

Generic Structure

1. General classification

2. Description

Dominant Language Feature

1. Introducing group or general aspect

2. Using conditional logical connection

3. Using Simple Present Tense

EXPLANATION

Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

Generic Structure:

1. General statement

2. Explanation

3. Closing

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense

2. Using action verbs

3. Using passive voice

4. Using noun phrase

5. Using adverbial phrase

6. Using technical terms

7. Using general and abstract noun

8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case

Generic Structure:

1. Thesis

2. Arguments

3. Reiteration/Conclusion

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using modals

2. Using action verbs

3. Using thinking verbs

4. Using adverbs

5. Using adjective

6. Using technical terms

7. Using general and abstract noun

8. Using connectives/transition

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done

Generic Structure:

1. Thesis

2. Arguments

3. Recommendation

Dominant Language features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense

2. Using modals

3. Using action verbs

4. Using thinking verbs

5. Using adverbs

6. Using adjective

7. Using technical terms

8. Using general and abstract noun

9. Using connectives/transition

Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

PROCEDURE

Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely

Generic Structure:

1. Goal/Aim

2. Materials/Equipments

3. Steps/Methods

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense

2. Using Imperatives sentence

3. Using adverb

4. Using technical terms

DISCUSSION

Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)

Generic Structure:

1. Issue

2. Arguments for and against

3. Conclusion

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense

2. Use of relating verb/to be

3. Using thinking verb

4. Using general and abstract noun

5. Using conjunction/transition

6. Using modality

7. Using adverb of manner

REVIEW

Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience

dominant Generic Structure:

1. Orientation

2. Evaluation

3. Interpretative Recount

4. Evaluation

5. Evaluative Summation

Dominant Language features:

1. Focus on specific participants

2. Using adjectives

3. Using long and complex clauses

4. Using metaphor

ANECDOTE

Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident

Generic Structure:

1. Abstract

2. Orientation

3. Crisis

4. Reaction

5. Coda.

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers

2. Using material process

3. Using temporal conjunctions

SPOOF

Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers

Generic Structure:

1. Orientation

2. Event(s)

3. Twist

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Past Tense

2. Using action verb

3. Using adverb

4. Chronologically arranged

NEWS ITEM

Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Dominant Generic Structure:

1. Newsworthy event(s)

2. Background event(s)

3. Sources

Dominant Language Features:

1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline

2. Using action verbs

3. Using saying verbs

4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.

That was the explanation of the Kind of Text, I hope this article could be a source of reference for the readers. Thank you for your attention and if there are criticisms and suggestions to the author simply commented on the “comments”

Exclusive Toto Wolf Q&A: We have a mountain of work to do

It’s just over three months since Toto Wolff left his position as executive director at Williams to become part of a high-profile management triumvirate at Mercedes, with Niki Lauda and Ross Brawn. Since then, the 41-year-old Austrian, who is now a shareholder and executive director with the Brackley-based team, has witnessed the Silver Arrows score two podiums and two pole positions from the opening four races. In this exclusive interview Wolff discusses, amongst other things, the season so far, his plans for the future and why there is still much work to do…

Q: Toto, even if the Bahrain result was a bit disappointing, you must feel like you’ve landed in the land of milk and honey since joining Mercedes…
Toto Wolff:
 Ha, yes, two pole positions so far – that goes down really nicely. But milk and honey would be if we were to do the same on Sunday and finish at the top of the sheet. Maybe we could persuade Bernie (Ecclestone, Formula One group CEO) to also allocate points on a Saturday! So yes, I am happy, not so much about the results, but more about being part of that team. We have a fantastic spirit that means besides the hard work we are able to laugh together. That is very important for establishing a sense of ‘we’.

Q: Could it be that you all are somewhat taken aback by the sudden and rather unexpected success? You must feel very lucky…
TW:
 Well, I don’t feel that it is knocking on wood that propels us. If you look at our races so far we’ve had two pole positions and finished twice in P3 – that translates to a very solid upward movement through hard work. Yes, we have to consolidate our race results, but our two guys in the cockpit and our engineers and mechanics are doing a top job and I think what must be on our agenda now is to dovetail all elements a bit better – then we will have the race results we want. It sure is nice to have a pleasant Saturday evening, but I would settle much more for a great Sunday evening! (laughs)

Q: A few garages along from Mercedes you find Williams. With what emotions do you watch their early-season struggles?
TW:
 Of course, I see them struggling and I would say that it didn’t help that I left. I think with all the changes in the team they have to refocus. The team has a solid financial basis and I think what is needed now is that step-by-step they build on that. I hope that they drive through that hard time very fast.

Q: Coming back to Mercedes, at management level nobody – you, Ross Brawn, Niki Lauda – had ever worked together before. At what stage of the bonding process are you right now? Surely success must help…
TW:
 Niki I’ve know a bit longer – and I would say that we do get along very well. Niki is very outspoken and in daily business to get to the point in plain language helps immensely to sort out problems faster. Ross I pretty much only knew by name and fame, so we had a different starting point. What I witness is that we are on the way towards a non-verbal communication where a glance is all that is needed to understand what’s on the other’s mind.

Q: What qualities have you learned to appreciate in Niki and Ross? You three make a very interesting trio – but also good bedfellows?
TW:
 The quality I value most with Niki is his straightforwardness and his efficiency and, needless to say, his value as a sportsman. Ross has all the virtues that a great engineer must have: the preciseness, the focused and structured working mode, the calmness and the leadership he exhibits with his technicians.

Q: Everything is pointing towards the arrival of Paddy Lowe from McLaren next season. Now that you’ve spoken so much of Ross’s technical leadership qualities, is friction to be expected?
TW:
 Why? One doesn’t obviate the other. Ross is team principal and I don’t want to change that. We need to get stability in the team as we have a mountain of work to do. From where this team is coming it is important to have as many good people as possible – that is my focus in all these discussions.

Q: Are you surprised that Lewis Hamilton has advocated Ross so strongly?
TW:
 No, not at all. Everybody has the highest esteem for Ross and I would be completely mistaken were I to question Ross’ technical skills – someone who has won seven or eight titles. Who am I in this respect? I have been in Formula One for only three years. So I completely agree with every word Lewis said.

Q: What about your two drivers? After almost three months of working together, what qualities do you appreciate in them? After the Malaysian Grand Prix there were suggestions that Lewis must be your number-one driver…
TW:
 Three months is not an overly long time. I have seen a bit of their private side, but of course much more of their professional side, and what I can spontaneously say is that I not only admire their talent, but also their very focused working style. Nothing can distract them from their goal: to win. Sure, they are different in their approach…

Q: How so?
TW:
 Well, maybe you could say that Nico (Rosberg) has a Teutonic way of approaching things. That starts with his daily routine and ends with how he solves problems. Lewis’ approach is more emotional – and he has a lot of emotions. But if you look at the lap times, both ways work equally well – it’s only a different avenue! (laughs)

Q: How far are you on your way to rebuilding the team? What is the main focus for the next couple of weeks? Hiring? Firing?
TW:
 I am in a very exciting situation as I get to know the people around me better and better and can judge their contribution. It is not about revamping everything – it is all about nuances. I am speaking with everybody, I am listening – and I give my opinion. I want to establish a structure that exudes success. Of course what I do is based on experience from my other businesses, and not necessarily from running an F1 team, but success is spelt the same anywhere.

Q: What is the most useful lesson you’ve learned so far in your short new career?
TW:
 To understand what it needs to make Ross function – or how he functions.

Q: And how is that?
TW:
 Extremely structured. Accurate. Focused on sustainable results and not on short-term optimization. An excellent manager who gives his people room.

Q: It’s still a young season – how do you expect 2013 to progress? Mercedes have obviously got to build both an engine and a chassis for 2014 so at some point you’ll have to make pragmatic decisions…
TW:
 We’re already working on 2014 and we’ll gradually raise the percentage of people working on next year’s car. I would say that in May we will reach a point where more than 50 percent will work on the 2014 car.

Q: What will that mean?
TW:
 There is no doubt that at a point in the summer everybody will switch their main resources to the 2014 car, as this is a very complex and complicated machine. Of course it all depends on where you are in the standings. Those who are fighting for the title will of course concentrate longer on this year’s car.

Q: When everything is said and done at the end of November, what do you want to go home with?
TW:
 I want to be among the four top teams in the constructors’ championship and have a driver among the top four as well.Toto_Wolff_2010

Biography of Frank Lampard

0,,10268~11176309,00  For Fans Chelsea F.C. and  England National Team, do you know who he is it. But for you didn’t like football, you will know who he is and what his role in the club Chelsea F.C. England football and the national team.

Now let’s enjoy it this information.

Frank James Lampard (born 20 June 1978) is an English professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Chelsea and the England national team. He is the vice-captain for his club side. Considered to be one of the best English footballers of his time and one of the best midfield players of his generation, Lampard is a box-to-box midfielder known for “his work-rate, range of passing and goalscoring ability.” Lampard began his career at West Ham United, for whom his father Frank Lampard, Sr. had also played. He secured a place in the first team by the 1997–98 season, and the following year helped the team finish 5th in the Premier League, their highest-ever Premier League placing. In 2001, he moved to rival London club Chelsea for £11 million.

From his début, he was ever-present in the Chelsea first team, setting a record 164 consecutive Premier League appearances. He established himself as a prolific scorer at the west London club and was a key part of the sides which won back-to-back Premier League titles in 2004–05 and 2005–06 and a domestic cup double in 2007. He signed a new contract in 2008, becoming the highest-paid Premier League footballer at that time, and scored in his first Champions League Final that year. He won a second FA Cup winners’ medal in 2009, scoring the winning goal in the final. In the 2009–10 season, Lampard won the Premier League title and the FA Cup (domestic cup double) and had his most prolific season with Chelsea, scoring 22 league goals and 17 league assists. In the 2011–12 season, Lampard captained Chelsea to their first UEFA Champions League title.

A three-time Chelsea Player of the Year, Lampard is the club’s second highest all-time goalscorer with 200 goals in all competitions. Lampard is one of seven players, and the only midfielder, to have scored 150 or more goals in the Premier League. He is second in the Premier League’s all-time assists table with 91 assist. He has had over 1400 successful passes and 10 or more assists every season. In 2005, Lampard was voted FWA Footballer of the Year and was runner-up in both the FIFA World Player of the Year and the Ballon d’Or. In 2010 he received the FWA Tribute Award. On 23 December 2009, he was named the Premier League’s player of the decade by official statistics.

Internationally, Lampard has been capped 95 times by England since making his debut in October 1999, and has scored 28 international goals. He was voted England Player of the Year for two consecutive years in 2004 and 2005. He played in Euro 2004, where he was named in the team of the tournament after scoring three goals in four games. He was top scorer for England in their 2006 World Cup qualifying campaign with five goals, and played in the 2006 World Cup. He is England’s most prolific penalty taker with nine goals, surpassing the previous record holders, Ron Flowers and Alan Shearer. He was named the 49th highest earning athlete in the world in June 2011

Now let’s we look at the statistics when he plays for his club and national team England.

Career History:

Club

  1. Chelsea F.C. (2001-now)
  2. West Ham United (1996-2001)
  3. Swansea City (1995-1996)

National Team

England (1999-now)

Biography of frank lampard hopefully this could be a reference for all readers. Thank you for your attention. Please comment on the suggestion for the author.

Biography of R.A. Kartini

COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Portret_van_Raden_Ajeng_Kartini_TMnr_10018776  Happy Kartini Day’s for all womens in Indonesia.Now i will share some information from the emancipation of women in Indonesia. I hope this article could be interesting reading for reference Indonesian women.

Raden Ayu Kartini, (21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904), or sometimes known as Raden Ajeng Kartini, was a prominent Javanese and an Indonesian national heroine. Kartini was a pioneer in the area of women’s rights for Indonesians.

Biography

Kartini was born into an aristocratic Javanese family when Java was part of the Dutch colony of the Dutch East Indies. Kartini’s father, Sosroningrat, became Regency Chief of Jepara. Kartini’s father, was originally the district chief of Mayong. Her mother, Ngasirah was the daughter of Madirono and a teacher of religion in Teluwakur. She was his first wife but not the most important one. At this time, polygamy was a common practice among the nobility. She also wrote the Letters of a Javanese Princess. Colonial regulations required a Regency Chief to marry a member of the nobility. Since Ngasirah was not of sufficiently high nobility, her father married a second time to Woerjan (Moerjam), a direct descendant of the Raja of Madura. After this second marriage, Kartini’s father was elevated to Regency Chief of Jepara, replacing his second wife’s own father, Tjitrowikromo.

Kartini was the fifth child and second eldest daughter in a family of eleven, including half siblings. She was born into a family with a strong intellectual tradition. Her grandfather, Pangeran Ario Tjondronegoro IV, became a Regency Chief at the age of 25 while Kartini’s older brother Sosrokartono was an accomplished linguist. Kartini’s family allowed her to attend school until she was 12 years old. Here, among other subjects, she learn to speak Dutch, an unusual accomplishment for Javanese women at the time. After she turned 12 she was ‘secluded’ at home, a common practice among Javanese nobility, to prepare young girls for their marriage. During seclusion girls were not allowed to leave their parents’ house until they were married, at which point authority over them was transferred to their husbands. Kartini’s father was more lenient than some during his daughter’s seclusion, giving her such privileges as embroidery lessons and occasional appearances in public for special events.

During her seclusion, Kartini continued to educate herself on her own. Because she could speak Dutch, she acquired several Dutch pen friends. One of them, a girl by the name of Rosa Abendanon, became a close friend. Books, newspapers and European magazines fed Kartini’s interest in European feminist thinking, and fostered the desire to improve the conditions of indigenous Indonesian women, who at that time had a very low social status.

Kartini’s reading included the Semarang newspaper De Locomotief, edited by Pieter Brooshooft, as well as leestrommel, a set of magazines circulated by bookshops to subscribers. She also read cultural and scientific magazines as well as the Dutch women’s magazine De Hollandsche Lelie, to which she began to send contributions which were published. Before she was 20 she hard read Max Havelaar and Love Letters by Multatuli. She also read De Stille Kracht (The Hidden Force) by Louis Couperus, the works of Frederik van Eeden, Augusta de Witt, the Romantic-Feminist author Goekoop de-Jong Van Eek and an anti-war novel by Berta von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder! (Lay Down Your Arms!). All were in Dutch.

Kartini’s concerns were not only in the area of the emancipation of women, but also other problems of her society. Kartini saw that the struggle for women to obtain their freedom, autonomy and legal equality was just part of a wider movement.

Kartini with Joyodiningrat

Kartini’s parents arranged her marriage to Joyodiningrat, the Regency Chief of Rembang, who already had three wives. She was married on the 12 November 1903. This was against Kartini’s wishes, but she acquiesced to appease her ailing father. Her husband understood Kartini’s aims and allowed her to establish a school for women in the east porch of the Rembang Regency Office complex. Kartini’s only son was born on 13 September 1904. A few days later on 17 September 1904, Kartini died at the age of 25. She was buried in Bulu Village, Rembang.

Inspired by R.A. Kartini’s example, the Van Deventer family established the R.A. Kartini Foundation which built schools for women, ‘Kartini’s Schools’ in Semarang in 1912, followed by other women’s schools in Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Malang, Madiun, Cirebon and other areas.

Commemoration of Kartini Day in 1953

In 1964, President Sukarno declared R.A. Kartini’s birth date, 21 April, as ‘Kartini Day’ – an Indonesian national holiday. This decision has been criticised. It has been proposed that Kartini’s Day should be celebrated in conjunction with Indonesian Mothers Day, on 22 December so that the choice of R.A. Kartini as a national heroine would not overshadow other women who, unlike R.A. Kartini, took up arms to oppose the colonisers.

In contrast, those who recognise the significance of R.A. Kartini argue that not only was she a feminist who elevated the status of women in Indonesia, she was also a nationalist figure, with new ideas who struggled on behalf of her people, including her in the national struggle for independence.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartini

Fernando Alonso Q&A: Ferrari not yet the car to beat

images After his dramatic early exit in Malaysia, Ferrari’s Fernando Alonso fought back with a convincing win in China last weekend, and now lies third in the standings, nine points shy of leader Sebastian Vettel. So what has the former champion made of 2013’s opening rounds, are what are his and the Scuderia’s prospects for the Bahrain weekend and beyond? Alonso discussed these and other issues – including his friendship with Mark Webber – with the media in Sakhir on Thursday…

Q: After three races, would you have predicted the current championship standings?
Fernando Alonso: The first races are usually the ones where one can see the potential of the different teams, and where you have to learn how to deal with the new rules and regulations. This year it is very much the learning curve on how to deal with the tyres that we are all currently occupied with. In general I don’t think that the championship standings are very important yet, but they are also not a big surprise at the same time, as for example Lewis (Hamilton) is one of the best drivers on the grid, and he had put McLaren into a very competitive position last year, and is doing the same with Mercedes this year. So once more he has proved his talent. Also we all know that the Red Bulls are very strong and we will count with them again, and also Kimi (Raikkonen) had a fantastic start of the season – he is driving better than anyone else at the moment and also he clearly deserves to be there.

Q: How satisfied are you personally with the win at the last race, and how satisfying was it to not see your main competitor of recent years with you on the podium?
FA: Of course I was very happy, as not winning for some time is clearly a difficult matter for oneself and the team. It has been for sure 11 or 12 races that we haven’t properly won the race, although we have managed to be on the podium constantly. But also there have been a lot of other very good drivers with a competitive car that have not won either for 15 or 16 races. But what we have understood is that it is not only important to win a race, but to be consistently on the podium. Not to have had Sebastian (Vettel) on the podium is for sure good news at this stage of the championship, as he is leading it, but it would be the same with Lewis or Mark (Webber) if they were in the lead.

Q: Do you have the feeling that yours is the car to beat at the moment under race conditions?
FA: I don’t really think so, as I do not see the advantage that others see after one victory. In Australia we were obviously not the quickest, and in Malaysia we were even struggling a little bit, and Felipe (Massa) was only fifth, so he was not dominating the race. Also in China, if you look at the race pace I think Sebastian was the quickest. Maybe Red Bull has chosen a wrong qualifying strategy and therefore they compromised their race. For us it is clear that we need to keep improving, and be a little faster. We hope to achieve this with introducing new components here, in Barcelona and Monaco. So I hope that during the next few weeks we can close up to the level of the best cars.

Q: Do you see any effect on the Red Bull team because of the internal situation their drivers have?
FA: To be honest I don’t think that there is much effect, as once you arrive at the track you separate from your team mate and have your meetings with your own group of engineers and mechanics, and you really focus on your own work. So both of them concentrate on their own schedule. I just think that Mark needs to regain his luck again, as China was just bad luck, and then he will be as strong as ever.

Q: You were seen having dinner with Mark Webber this week. Was there a special reason for this?
FA: Mark and I have known each other now for almost 13 years and we have a very good relationship, and not only because we have been working both with Flavio Briatore. So there doesn’t need to be a special reason to have dinner together, as it is quite normal that friends have dinner together. And Mark is feeling quite good and confident at the moment, knowing that he has got a very competitive car and that there are still many races to come in this season.

Source: http://www.formula1.com

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