Greenhouse gas milestone; CO2 levels set record

WASHINGTON (AP) — Worldwide levels of the chief greenhouse gas that causes global warminghave hit a milestone, reaching an amount never before encountered by humans, federal scientists said Friday.

Carbon dioxide was measured at 400 parts per million at the oldest monitoring station in Hawaii which sets the global benchmark. The last time the worldwide carbon level was probably that high was about 2 million years ago, said Pieter Tans of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

That was during the Pleistocene Era. “It was much warmer than it is today,” Tans said. “There were forests in Greenland. Sea level was higher, between 10 and 20 meters (33 to 66 feet).”

Other scientists say it may have been 10 million years ago that Earth last encountered this level of carbon dioxide.

The measurement was recorded Thursday. The number 400 has been anticipated by climate scientists and environmental activists for years as a notable indicator, in part because it’s a round number — not because any changes in man-made global warming happen by reaching it.

When measurements of this chief greenhouse gas were first taken in 1958, carbon dioxide was measured at 315. Levels are now growing about 2 parts per million per year. That’s 100 times faster than at the end of the Ice Age.

Before the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels were around 280 ppm, and they were closer to 200 during the Ice Age. There are natural ups and downs of this greenhouse gas, which comes from volcanoes and decomposing plants and animals. But that’s not what has driven current levels so high, Tans said. He said the amount should be even higher, but the world’s oceans are absorbing quite a bit, keeping it out of the air.

“What we see today is 100 percent due to human activity,” said Tans, a NOAA senior scientist. The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity and oil for gasoline, has caused the overwhelming bulk of the man-made increase in carbon in the air, scientists say.

At the end of the Ice Age it took 7,000 years for carbon dioxide levels to rise by 80 parts per million, Tans said. Because of burning of fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, carbon dioxide levels have gone up by the same amount in just 55 years.

Carbon dioxide traps heat just like in a greenhouse and most of it stays in the air for a century, some lasts for thousands of years scientists say.

The speed of the change is the big worry, said Pennsylvania State University climate scientist Michael Mann. If carbon dioxide levels go up 100 parts per million over thousands or millions of years, plants and animals can adapt. But that can’t be done at the speed it is now happening.

Last year, regional monitors briefly hit 400 ppm in the Arctic. But those monitoring stations aren’t seen as a world mark like the one at Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

Generally carbon levels peak in May then fall slightly, so the yearly average is usually a few parts per million lower than May levels.



ENGLIS Now we learn about “Prepositional  Verbs & Phrasal Verbs” and the example of Prepositional Verbs & Phrasal Verbs. So let’s read it.


There are a very large number of combinations of verb+preposition. Prepositions always

have objects:

Please look after the children.

I’ve fallen for you in a big way.

In English, the preposition does not always come before its object; in certain kinds of

sentence, it can come at the end of the clause: What are you talking about?

Prepositional verbs are those which accept the passive and/or the pronominal question,

but not the adverbial question form.


When a verb is used with an adverb particle the combination is called a phrasal verb.

There are a very large number of these in English. The meaning of a phrasal verb is often very

different from the meanings of the two words taken separately. In order to understand the

meaning of a phrasal verb, you may have to refer to the dictionary. Phrasal verbs can be

intransitive (not followed by a direct object) or transitive (followed by a direct object).


break down (transitive)

get up (transitive)

sit down (transitive)

turn up (transitive)


bring something up (=mention it)

kick somebody out (=expel him)

put something off (=postpone it)

throw something away (=accommodate him)

turn something down (=refuse it).

When a phrasal verb has a direct object, the two parts of the verb can usually be

separated: the adverb particle can be put before or after the object.

We’ll have to put off the party/put the party off.

Why don’t you throw away that stupid hat/throw that stupid hat away?

Could you put up my sister/put my sister up for three nights?

However, when the object is a pronoun, the adverb particle can only go after the object:

We’ll have to put it off.

Could you put her up?

Phrasal and prepositional verbs display certain phonological and syntactic differences.


There are a few verbs which consist of three parts: a base verb, an adverb particle and a

preposition: to get on with, to put up with, to check up on. These look complicated, but in fact,

they are used in the same way as any other prepositional verb. For example, to get on with

follows the same rules as to go with. Compare:

I get on well with Jill.

I often go to the theatre with Jill.

He’s difficult to put up with.

He’s difficult to work with

That was an explanation of Propositional verbs & phrasal verbs, I hope this article can be a source of reference for the readers. Thank you for your attention and if there are criticisms and suggestions to the author simply commented on the “comments”

Iron Man 3


Iron Man 3 is a 2013 American superhero film featuring the Marvel Comics character Iron Man, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.It is the sequel to Iron Man and Iron Man 2, and the seventh installment in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, being the first major release in the franchise since the crossover film The Avengers. Shane Black directed a screenplay he co-wrote with Drew Pearce, which is based on the “Extremis” story arc by Warren Ellis. Jon Favreau, who directed the first two films, serves as executive producer, along with Kevin Feige.  Robert Downey, Jr. reprises his role as the title character, with Gwyneth Paltrow, Don Cheadle, and Favreau reprising their roles as Pepper Potts, James Rhodes, and Happy Hogan, respectively. Guy Pearce, Rebecca Hall, Stephanie Szostak, James Badge Dale, and Ben Kingsley round out the film’s principal cast.

After the release of Iron Man 2 in May 2010, Favreau decided not to return as director, and in February 2011 Black was hired to rewrite and direct the film. Throughout April and May of 2012, the film’s supporting cast was filled out, with Kingsley, Pearce, and Hall brought in to portray key roles. Filming began on May 23, 2012 in Wilmington, North Carolina. The film was shot primarily in North Carolina, with additional shooting in Florida, China and Los Angeles. The film’s visual effects were handled by a number of companies, including Scanline VFX, Digital Domain, and Weta Digital.

Iron Man 3 was converted to 3D in post-production. The film premiered at the Grand Rex in Paris on April 14, 2013,and was internationally released on April 25, 2013 in IMAXand is scheduled to be released on May 3, 2013 in the United States.

The Latest Tool for Tracking Obesity? Facebook Likes




Obesity is a big problem that needs big solutions, and Facebook may be coming to the rescue.

In a way that’s never been possible before, people can record their interests, habits and daily activities that at first blush might seem to have only trivial meaning. But such data can be accessed by almost anyone (depending on privacy settings, of course), and that includes researchers. Scientists are turning to Facebook as a way to track how obesity trends, for example, correlate with geographically-specific trends in diet and exercise,  and hope that such information can lead to more targeted ways of reversing the obesity epidemic.

The researchers, from Boston Children’s Hospital, aggregated data on Facebook users’ interests and discovered that the higher percentage of people with interests that related to healthy and active lifestyles in a given area, the lower was that region’s obesity rate. The opposite was true for areas with a large percentage of people with Facebook interests that related to television, for example.

To come up with the link, the scientists studied what national Facebook users posted on their timelines, what they “liked,” and what they shared with their friends to come up with nation-wide associations.They also looked specifically at users within New York City and found similar trends at the neighborhood level, documenting that communities with more residents expressing interest in healthy lifestyle behaviors and products showed lower obesity rates than those where residents tended to show more interest in television shows.

(MORE: Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad About Yourself)

Nationwide, obesity rates were 12% lower in areas where the highest percentage of Facebook users had exercise-related interests. In New York City, Coney Island, which had the highest percentage of users with activity-related interests had a 7.2% lower obesity rate than Southwest Queens, which had the lowest percentage of Facebook users with active interests. The power of the strategy, the scientists said, lay in the social media’s ability to focus on both national as well as local trends.

“Definitely in public health [Facebook] is a great source for identifying where we should target public health interventions,” says Rumi Chunara, an instructor at Boston Children’s Hosptial and Harvard Medical Center and author of the study, which was published in the journal, PLOS ONE. “At the same time, because this is a real time source, we can also evaluate the status of other interventions.”

Such assessments may be social media’s most important contribution to fighting the obesity epidemic, says experts, since many of the current strategies to reverse the tide aren’t working. “In order to combat obesity, we have to look beyond what we have been doing because it really hasn’t worked, which is the traditional diet and exercise,” says Dr. Jennifer Li, a professor of pediatrics and division chief of pediatric cardiology at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C.. “One way of reaching people is through social media since most people are connected through Facebook and Twitter and various social media. Li lead an American Heart Association study on using social media to fight childhood obesity.

(MORE: Why You’re More Likely to Remember A Facebook Status Than a Face)

“We have to look at ways to reach out to people, and one of the things you can look at is how people cluster,” she says. “People cluster in social media just as well as they do in real life. If you smoke, your friends are more likely to smoke. If you’re obese, you’re friends are more likely to be obese. If you can make an impact on the group, you can have a ripple effect.”

Some programs are already exploiting the power of the interactivity of these networks; Weight Watchers, for example, has an online network of dieters, with apps and updates in addition to their traditional meetings. Programs like Weigh2Rock is another weight loss website targeting overweight kids via chat-rooms with dietitians.

“These can be used as a reinforcement tool if [programs] use the social media and websites to get supplementary information like diet advice and exercise advice to users. If there’s reciprocal interactions between the group and whoever is managing it, you can build in support,” says Li.

(MORE: Who Wields The Most Influence On Facebook?)

The very feature that makes these strategies so powerful, however — the openness and transparency of the connection that users feel — could also make them vulnerable to exploitation. While healthy brands and weight loss programs abound on Facebook and Twitter, so do less qualified programs and not-so-healthy brands that increasingly capitalize on the massive online audience. Jennifer Harris, the director of marketing initiatives at Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, studies food marketing aimed at children and teens, and has focused on how brands use social media to target them.

“There are so many children on Facebook especially, and the food companies all have Facebook pages that kids can ‘like,’ and when they ‘like’ the page, they are constantly seeing posts on their newsfeed and their friends can also see these posts from the companies,” says Harris. “Unfortunately, almost all of them are unhealthy food. If you look at the top 20 brands on Facebook, Facebook is number one, but then Coca-Cola is next with more than 60 million likes, followed by other brands like Oreos, Red Bull, Skittles, Pringles. These are all in the top 20 food brands on Facebook.”

Harris says fast food restaurants and energy drink companies are also actively using social media to target teens by creating YouTube videos. By enhancing the appeal of the posts and videos with lively humor and music, the companies are appealing to kids ‘and teens’ tastes and increasing the chances their hits will be shared with their friends.

“For teenagers, a message that comes from your friend is much more powerful than something that comes from a parent or teachers, so that’s another reason we think social media is used by companies that target teens,” says Harris.

(MOREIs Self-Help the Secret to Reducing Childhood Obesity?)

Unfortunately, while weight loss organizations and healthy lifestyle brands use social media too, their efforts have hardly been as appealing or as viral as those of the less healthy ones. “I think there is an opportunity [for healthy organizations to reach teens with social media], but with kids it has to be fun and entertaining, and [it’s hard] to make “eat healthy” messages fun and entertaining. I think we are just not as good at designing those messages as the companies that market to kids are,” she says.

There’s also the double-edged sword of relying on a social media outlet, which requires children to be online, to promote healthy, active lifestyles. Too much screen time can often contribute to a more sedentary lifestyle, so advocates of physical activity recognize their efforts have to balance that risk with the benefits of reaching people, especially young children, in a way that appeals to them.

“I think the mainstay of weight loss is diet and exercise, and a very important thing is prevention and education in the schools. I think social media is a way to reach a lot of people, but it doesn’t become a substitute for diet and exercise,” says Li. “It is a way to have people be incentivized, because a lot of people communicate right now through social media. It is not a replacement, but it reinforces behavior.

Volcano made an ash of Sam’s Lewandowski swoop


The former Rovers chief had a £4.5million deal in the pipeline to bring the hotshot to Ewood in summer 2010 — only to see it scuppered by the volcanic ash cloud.

Big Sam saw the Borussia Dortmund superstar — who struck four against Real Madrid in the Champions League this week — as a ‘Polish Ian Rush’.

But plans to show him around were hit by Mother Nature and while Blackburn’s dallied the Bundesliga outfit made their move.

Allardyce said: “Yes, yes, yes! I think about it everytime I see him play.

“There were a lot of people looking at him but we had the edge because of the attraction of the Premier League. He could have used us as a stepping stone — but it didn’t happen.”

A source close to Lewandowski, 24, said: “Big Sam went over to Poland and watched Robert play for Lech Poznan, he was really impressed.

“He nicknamed him ‘Rushie’ because he felt he was like a Polish version of Ian Rush.

“Robert made it clear he was interested because he’s always fancied trying his luck in English football.

“So Sam invited him over, the flights were booked and all parties were hoping a deal could be done. But then because of the ash cloud the flights got cancelled.

“In the meantime Dortmund came in for him really strongly and Blackburn were struggling to get the money together.

“I know that Sam was very disappointed and Blackburn must be kicking themselves.

“Robert was also disappointed at the time but has never looked back — although his ambition to play in England still remains.”

Tottenham also snubbed the chance to bag the striker when club legend Steve Archibald was an agent.

He revealed on Twitter: “Just a note of interest for Spurs fans, I offered Lewandowski to Spurs when he was still playing in Poland, for less than 5m, pity!”

Learn English without mistakes

You can damage your English by writing and speaking. Your grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation can get worse because of practice. When you speak or write with mistakes, you teach yourself bad habits. These bad habits may be difficult to eliminate.

How can you avoid making mistakes?

  • When you speak or write, be careful, slow, and use simple language. Look things up in dictionaries and on the Web.
  • If you make a lot of mistakes, focus on writing rather than speaking. If that doesn’t help, stop writing and speaking; concentrate on input instead.

The role of mistakes in language learning:

Are mistakes as inevitable in language learning as they are in other human activities? Is making mistakes a good way to learn a language?

Praying to our Parents

Grateful for God by Sue Favor of Religious Science

Allah Hummaghfirli … Dhunubi Waliwalidayya …
Warhamguma .. Warhamguma ..
Kama Rabbayani Shoghiroo

Oh … My God,
Forgive me and our parents
Oh … My God,
Forgive me and our parents,

Bless them …. 4x
as they care me since baby
Rabbana Atina fiddun ya khasana
wafil aqirooti waqina adhabannar ..

How to Be Happy: 8 Ways to Feel Better About Everything

By Beth Greenfield, Shine Staff

Who doesn’t want happiness? For most people, the question of how to achieve it is right up there with that of wondering what happens to us when we die. And psychology professor Sonja Lyubomirsky is on the forefront of helping everyone find some answers, both through tireless research as well as with her books, like “The How of Happiness” (2007) and its just-published follow-up, “The Myths of Happiness.”

Lyubomirsky, based at the University of California, Riverside, believes that everyone has his or her own set happiness level, noted the New York Times in a recent profile of the researcher. And the less happy among us tend to share traits like frequently comparing themselves to others (and finding personal disappointment in others’ successes), rationalizing often, and dwelling on unhappy events. Happy folks, meanwhile, have a greater tendency to store up positive moments in their memory.

But whatever your set level is, Lyubomirsky’s research has showed there are many ways—known as “hedonic benefits”—to boost it, some of which may be surprising.

1. Perform random acts of kindness
“The generous acts don’t have to be random and they don’t have to be a certain kind (e.g, anonymous or social or big, etc.),” Lyubomirsky told fellow happiness-expert Gretchen Rubin. “We have found that almost any types of acts of kindness boost happiness.” Recent studies have corroborated the findings, she noted, with one showing that when 9- to 11-year old kids were asked to do good deeds for several weeks, they not only got happier, but became more popular with their peers.

2. Live in a home that’s rented, not owned 
Lyubomirsky takes the American Dream to task, saying that renters are happier than owners. At least one study agrees, finding that “Homeowners are no happier than renters by any of the following definitions: life satisfaction, overall mood, overall feeling, general moment-to-moment emotions (i.e. affect) and affect at home but instead derive more pain from their house and home.”

3. Count your blessings
Learning to practice gratefulness is particularly key to happiness, Lyubomirsky says. And there are many ways to do it: by keeping a gratitude journal, in which you ruminate on 2-3 things for which you’re currently grateful, “from the mundane (your dryer is fixed, your flowers are finally in bloom, your husband remembered to stop by the store) to the magnificent (your child’s first steps, the beauty of the sky at night),” she wrote in a recent blog post. Alternately, you can choose a fixed time that’s set aside for thinking about your blessings, or when you can talk about what’s good in your life with a gratitude partner, or even tell people directly that you’re grateful for them or their actions. Writing one day, and then thinking or discussing the next, is a good way to keep your gratitude practice fresh, she notes.

4. Be thrifty
Materialism, overconsumption and overspending will ultimately get you down, Lyubomirsky hasnoted, reiterating the point by using age-old tropes (possessions break, while memories only get better) and quotes (“Our necessities are few, but our wants are endless”). “Promoting sustainable happiness means helping people transcend set points and setbacks to live more rewarding lives,” she writes in one study. “Thrift can complement this endeavor by extending the meaning of sustainability, ensuring that the collective can flourish as well as the individual.” In other words? Greed makes everyone sad.

5. Become a parent
No, it’s not for everyone, and definitely not a quick or simple fix. But parents experience greater levels of happiness and meaning in life than people without children, according to research that Lyubomirsky led in 2012. “We are not saying that parenting makes people happy, but that parenthood is associated with happiness and meaning,” she explained. “Contrary to repeated scholarly and media pronouncements, people may find solace that parenthood and child care may actually be linked to feelings of happiness and meaning in life.”

6. Learn to savor positive experiences
“The ability to savor the positive experiences in your life is one of the most important ingredients of happiness,” according to Lyubomirsky. How to do it? Put together a small album with happy photos or mementos and carry it around with you. Try to be present and fully appreciate small, happy moments—from taking a shower to eating a meal. And tune in to natural joys, from the sound of a bird singing to the smell of fresh spring blossoms in the air.

7. Take baby steps toward life goalsMaking a list of your big goals in life, and taking baby steps toward them, is very happy-inducing. That’s because a component of happiness is the sense that your life is good, “that you’re progressing towards your goals in life,” Lyubomirsky told Diane Rehm. This is a digestible way to make it possible.

8. Stay healthy and live long: Happiness peaks at age 65
As she noted in her first book, a 22-year study of about 2,000 healthy veterans of World War II and the Korean War revealed that life satisfaction increased over the course of these men’s lives, peaked at age 65, and didn’t start significantly declining until age 75. Takeaway: Not happy at 30? Don’t give up, and don’t rush it. There’s still time.

How to add vocabulary and expedite speak English

1. Many read the English article (in this way at least we can learn new vocabulary)

2. Record at least 10 difficult words every day and memorize

3. Always try to speak English, if there are no friends to talk to who can english. Do it by yourself in order to expedite speak English. (As we learn about the language first most important thing is practice, practice, and practice. Without practice we will not be able to develop our skills in vocabulary and English speaking)

4. Do not be afraid to make mistakes and always practice.


That’s a few tips from me that might make you can add vocabulary and facilitate in speaking English. Hope can help

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