Task Group: MAKING BATIK BOJONEGORO

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Making batik bojonegoro

 

On June 2013 yesterday, we have completed interviews with entrepreneurs batik in Bojonegoro, precisely on the highway dander. Here’s the information that we get from the interview, in which the four of us are defi, vita, elok, nurul with Mr. yoyok.

*Reporter: Asker

*Keynote Speaker: Mr. yoyok

-Questioner: “Assalamu’alaikum  sir., we want students IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, few know

about the Mr wrestled this business! ”

-Keynote Speaker: “Wa’alaikumsalam, Yes please!”

-Questioner: “sir, when you have start a business of batik?”

-Keynote Speaker: “About four years ago, I set up this business!”

-Questioner: “it had been four years yes Sir!”

-Keynote Speaker: “Yeah, four years!”

-Questioner: “There are any motive Bojonegoro and a Sir who owned a lot popular society Bojonegoro, sir ? ”

-Keynote Speaker: “There are many motives yes, there Gastro Rinonce, Corn Miji Gold, Mlimis

Mukti, Dahono Munggal Parang, Parang Jembur Rinandar Sekar, Pari

Sumilah, smart Thengul, Sata Gondo Wangi, Sekar Teak, but the

much-loved community or the buyer’s motives Teak Sekar, so that

Bojonegoro not fond of the course, the buyer is usually a

were from out of town. ”

-Questioner: “So where is the center of batik making Bojonegoro sir?”

-Keynote Speaker: “The headquarters are in Njono, precisely Kec.Temayang, Kab. Bojonegoro. ”

-Questioner :What Batik Supplies and How to make batik bojonegoro sir?

-Keynote Speaker:

A. Batik Supplies

Batik equipment has not changed much. Judging from the equipment and how to do it, batik can be classified as a work that is both traditional.

1) Gawangan

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Gawangan is a tool for hooking and spread mori while in batik. Gawangan made ​​of wood or bamboo. Gawangan should be made such that a strong, lightweight, and easy to move.

2) The pendulum.

Pendulum is made of tin, wood, or stone placed in the bag. Principal function is to hold the pendulum new mori in batik is not easily displaced when blown by the wind or are interested in batik accidentally.

3) Frying Pan 

Pans are utensils weeks to thaw the night. Pan made ​​of steel or metal clay. Pan should be stemmed so easily raised and lowered from the fireplace without using other tools.

4) Stove   

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Stove is a tool for making fire. Stoves commonly used are oil-fired stove. But sometimes this stove can be replaced with a small gas stove, which uses charcoal brazier, and others. This serves as a fireplace stove and heating the ingredients used to make batik.

5) linens

Tablecloth is a cloth to cover the thighs being exposed to droplets batik summer night when blown or time batik canting.

6) Filter Night

Sieve is a tool for filtering hot night with a lot of dirt. If the night is not filtered, dirt can interfere with the flow of the night at the end of canting. Meanwhile, when the night is filtered, dirt can be removed so it does not interfere with the course of the night at the end when it is used for batik canting.

There are various forms of sieve, the finer the better because the more dirt will be left behind. Thus, the net will be a hot night of dirt when used for batik.

7) Canting

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Canting is a tool used to move or take fluids, made ​​of copper and bamboo as a handle. This canting batik patterns used to write with liquid night. Currently, canting slowly using Teflon material.

8) Mori

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Mori is the basic material of batik made ​​from cotton. Mori quality assortment and determine the merits of its kind batik cloth produced. Mori necessary adjusted to the desired length of the short fabric.

There is no definitive measure of the length of cloth because the cloth is usually measured traditionally. The traditional measure called the Handkerchief. Handkerchief is a handkerchief, usually square in shape.

Thus, the size of the square is called sekacu mori, taken from the mori widths. Therefore, the long sekacu of a different kind will mori length mori sekacu of other types.

But in the present, the size is rarely used. Easier for people to use the square meter size to determine the length and width of the cloth. This measure has been applied nationally and ultimately easier for consumers when buying a batik cloth. This method can be used to reduce misunderstandings and the perception in the trading system.

9) Night (Candle)

Night (candle) is a material that is used for batik. Actually, not a night out (lost) because in the end the night will be taken back to mbabar process, the process of batik cloth until batikan be. Night used for batik is different from the night (candles) regular. Night to be quickly absorbed batik fabric, but can be easily separated when pelorodan process.

10) Dhingklik (Seating)

Dhingklik (seating) is a place to sit batik. Usually made of bamboo, wood, plastic, or metal. Currently, the seat can be easily purchased in stores.

11) Natural Dyes

Natural dyes are dyes that are used for batik. In some places batik, natural dyes are still maintained, especially if they want to get distinctive colors, which can not be obtained from artificial colors. Everything natural is special, and even advanced technology can not match something natural.

That’s the kind of batik equipment that must exist. Batik process requires considerable time, especially if the fabric is very broad and coraknya dibatik quite complicated.

B. Batik process

Here is a batik process that sequentially from beginning to end. Naming or mention how batik work in each region can vary, but the core is doing the same.

1) Ngemplong

batikk

Ngemplong is the initial or preliminary stages, beginning with a wash cloth. The goal is to eliminate the kanji. Then proceed with pengeloyoran, which include cloth to castor oil or peanut oil that is already in the straw ash. Cloth put in castor oil so that the fabric becomes weak, so that the absorption of the dye is higher.

After going through the above process, given fabric starch and dried. Furthermore, the process pengemplongan, which hammered cloth to smooth fabric lining for easy dibatik.

2) Nyorek  or  Memola

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Nyorek or memola is the process of copying or making a pattern on top of the cloth motif by copying existing patterns, or commonly referred to as ngeblat. Pattern is usually created on top of parchment paper first, and was traced to the pattern on the cloth. This stage can be done directly on the fabric or trace them using a pencil or canting. But for the coloring process can work well, do not break, and perfect, then the process needs to be repeated on the side batikannya fabric underneath. This process is called algae.

3) Mbathik

Mbathik a later stage, by night carved batik cloth, starting from Nglowong (draw the lines outside of the pattern) and Isen, Isen (fill patterns with various shapes). In the process of Isen, Isen there nyecek term, which makes the stuffing in a pattern that was made by way of giving the points (nitik). There is also the term nruntum, which is almost the same as Isen, Isen, but more complicated.

4) Nembok

nembok

Nembok is the process of covering the parts that should not be exposed to the basic color, in this case blue color, using a night. Sections were covered with a thick layer of night as if it is a retaining wall.

5) Medel

nyuci

Medel is a fabric dyeing process that has dibatik to color liquid repeatedly to get the desired color.

6) ngerok and Mbirah

 batik

In this process, a night on the cloth carefully scraped off using a metal plate, and then the fabric is rinsed with clean water. After that, the fabric aerated.

7) Mbironi

 mbironi

Mbironi is covered in blue and Isen, Isen cecek a pattern or points using the night. In addition, there is also ngrining process, ie the process of filling in the yet tinged with a certain motive. Typically, ngrining done after the dyeing process is done.

8) Menyoga

Menyoga derived from the saga, which is a kind of wood that is used to get the color brown. The way is to dip a cloth into the mixture brown.

9) Nglorod

nglorod

Nglorod is the final stage in the process of making

batik cloth and batik cap that uses the color barrier (night). In this stage, batik release the entire night (candles) by inserting cloth is old enough color into the boiling water. Once appointed, the fabric is rinsed with clean water and then cooling it to dry arginkan. The process of making batik is quite long. Beginning to the end of the process can involve several people, and the completion of a stage of the process is also time consuming. Therefore, it is natural that batik cloth worth quite high.

-Questioner: “Who’s the mr. who first had the idea to start a business

this? ”

-Keynote Speaker: “She is Mrs. Yoto, that idea she who made batik

This was a 9 motif, which is where the passing Jenogoroan Batik Design,

he who gave us the spirit to start a business Batik

Jenogoro this. ”

-Questioner: “So this batik public widely known than the city Bojonegoro

itself, can mean Sir was famous batik Bojonegoro yes! ”

-Keynote Speaker: “Yeah exactly like that, just last year we getting an award from the exhibition that we follow exactly in Surabaya. And this Bojonegoro batik alhamdlilah got another championship, which last year got a winner, and this year’s winner gets two. Surely if there is another exhibition we will Batik Typical roles include Bojonegoro this. ”

-Questioner: “Well, I am proud to be sir of the Bojonegoro

rich in culture.

How the father’s way of making batik? ”

-Keynote Speaker: “There are of hand painted, some from the paint directly with used special tools for batik processing course. ”

-Questioner: “How marketing goods sir?”

-Keynote Speaker:”The marketing can be directly delivered, can be purchased directly here,

Ordering can also according to the tastes of buyers yea, the size of the model, we serve live alone. ”

-Questioner: “Thank you for your time and information, assalamu’alikum!”

-Keynote Speaker: “Yeah equally, wa’alaikumsalam.”

**CONCLUSION:

Bojonegoro is a district that has a wealth of natural and cultural incredible. This wealth of inspiring Mother Mafudho Suyoto to make it as Batik motif. Through a design competition, it creates 9 Jonegoroan Batik motif.

Among others: Gastro Rinonce (Motif Refinery Oil and Gas), Corn Miji Gold (Corn Motif), Mliwis Mukti (Legendary Bird Motif Transcendental Angling Dharma, Mliwis White), Parang Dahono Munggal (Motif Tourism Eternal Fire, Fire Goda), Parang Sekar Jembul Rinandar (Cow Animal Motif), Pari Sumilak (Motif Rice), smart Thengul (Motif Puppet Thengul, typical Bojonegoro), Sata Gondo Wangi (Motif Tobacco), and Sekar Teak (Teak Leaves Motif).

Nine Jonegoroan motif above is a picture of the potential of Cultural and Natural Bojonegoro. For people who want to possess Jonegoro batik can get Temayang District, District Dander and Purwosari.

We as the future generation should be able to maintain and preserve the culture that we have here. Do not let the culture that we have we ignore and we do not preserve.

Name group:

1. Defi vidiawati                                             nim 10120170

2. Eni prasetyo Elok                                   nim 10120178

3. Vita nurdiyana                                         nim 10120184

4. Nurul hidayatin                                       nim 10120205

TEAK WOOD ART

Group : 1. Endang Sulistiani

2. Siti Tasriatun

3. Susi Candra

4. Ika Siti Nurkana

 

 

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UD. KARUNIA JATI

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why teens abusing drugs easier?

 

why teensabusing drugseasier?

 

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Easily Influenced Friend
  Teens still has a soul which unstable and are still looking for identity. So easily                            influenced and participated – along with friends
• Curiosity is high
Teens like to try it – new things, including that can harm him.
• Solidarity Group
Strong sense of solidarity with friends cause it hard to resist the pressure of the group members including drug bid
• Want to Perform Stand
Teens often seek care in the hope looks bold, confident and look different
• Eliminate Tired and stress Sense
Teens often think of drugs can solve the problems faced by

 

qwq

 

 

why teensabusing drugseasier?
• Easily Influenced Friend
Teens still has a soul which unstable and are still looking for identity. So easily influenced and participated – along with friends
• Curiosity is high
Teens like to try it – new things, including that can harm him.
• Solidarity Group
Strong sense of solidarity with friends cause it hard to resist the pressure of the group members including drug bid
• Want to Perform Stand
Teens often seek care in the hope looks bold, confident and look different
• Eliminate Tired and stress Sense
Teens often think of drugs can solve the problems faced by
• Desire Revolting
Most teens use drugs as a reaction to the uprising against parental authority

 

 

 

HIGH RISK YOUTH
Teens Who are:
• Unable to communicate with parents
• Not be under the supervision of a parent
• low self-control
• Self-confidence and low self-esteem
• Do not want to follow the rules / norms / rules
• Like capturing the thrill
• Associating / live in the neighborhood drug abuse
• Isolated or difficult to adjust to the environment.
• Have a family member of drug abuse
• Low appreciation of spiritual

 

 

NATURAL CONTRASEPTIVE METHOD

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES MEDIA

 

THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
             
             
NO KINDS OF MEDIA THE ADVANTAGES THE DISADVANTAGES
1 VISUAL MEDIA        
  A. PRINTED MEDIA        
    – Book Easy to get it Can not show an animation,
      Can use to write   sounds, or another effects, so
            make a bored feeling to user.
          Need many book in each study.
             
             
             
    – Newspaper Get up to date an  Too weight to bring everywhere.
        information about News,  Can not shoe sounds, and another
        someone’s profile,etc   effects.
      Easy to get it    
             
             
             
    – Magazine The magazine’s paper have  An Information in magazine not like 
        better qualities than newsaper.   a newspaper. ( just like opinion ).
      Easy to get it Can not show sound and another 
            effects.
             
             
             
    – Brochure Easy to bring it Just a give a thing information, 
      Just a piece of paper, so did not   not news.
        need money to make it Make room or environment dirty.
             
             
             
    – Leaflet Easy to bring it    
      Easy to make it Can not show an effects make wall
            dirty.
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
  B GRAPHICS MEDIA        
    – Flash Card Can show a picture Can not show an effects 
      Easy to bring it Students who have low mind will be
            confuse.
             
             
             
    – Sentence Strip Need a little time to make it. Can not give time to students to 
      Cheap   think.
             
             
             
    – Wallcart Can help the student to  Make wall be dirty.
        remember about something Can not use in out door.
        because see it everyday.    
      Can be propeties in the room.    
             
             
             
    – Single Picture Can help the imagination to Make bored feeling bacause just see
        grow up.   one pictures.
      The Student more understand Students must make another 
        than see flashcard   sentences if their friend use the 
            sentences.
             
             
             
             
    – Picture Series Students more internet than just Need many pictures, it means that 
        single picture.   many material to make it.
      Students have many imagibation The classroom my be will noise when 
        to make understanding the   the Students discuss about the
        picture.   pictures.
             
             
  C REALIA        
    – Calendar To know date, month in today, Need place to put it.
        tomorrow or past. Will be dirty if the calender use spike
      To remain the homework or     
        assignment.    
             
             
             
             
             
             
    – Map / Globe To intriduce the Students the Make noise the classroom when 
        shape of earth.   Students want to see.
      To help the learning which learn  
        about countrys.    
             
             
             
    – Puzzle / Game More interest the student to Make noise classroom
        love the study Need many to do it.
      To entertaint of learning.    
             
             
             
    – Menu To organized the schedule. Need many time to make it.
      To know how many material Must can arrange the schedule.
        which be learn.    
             
             
             
    – Hand Puppet Give a skill to Students to play Need many material to make Puppet
        Puppet. Need special skill.
      To try right and left brain    
             
             
             
    – Overhead Transparancy Essay to operate Not practical, necessary energy 
      Can control students   to write
      No need to change the light It takes good writing is easy to read.
      Easily stored archives Requires some special stationery
             
             
             
2. AUDIO MEDIA        
    – Radio Can hear the sounds Need many tools to make it.
      Give an entertainment. Can not in out door.
             
             
             
    – Tape recorder To meke archieve by sounds. Need many blank cassetes to record.
      To save voice Many cassettes will be difficult to
            keep it.
             
             
             
    – Cassette Player To play something by cassette. Can not use it out door.
      To hear sounds Need many place to save it.
             
             
             
    – CD Player To play cassette Many tools to make it work.
      To hear sounds. Need place to put it.
             
             
             
3. AUDIO VISUAL MEDIA        
    – VCD To play compact disk. Need many compact disk
      To see sound, picture and 3D Many tools to make the VCD work.
        pictures from compact disk.    
             
             
             
    – Television Not only sound, but also 3D Can not bring everywhere
        pictures too can we see. Many tools to make it work.
      To hear and see news.    
             
            .
4. MULTI MEDIA        
    – Computer Assisted Can make many 3D picture with Need many place to put it.
    – Language Learning (call)   more effects can we do.   Need many time to operate it to work.
      To give skills to students to    
        operate it.    
             
             
             
             

Speech Act Theoryby Joanna Jaworowska·        What is a

Speech Act Theory

by Joanna Jaworowska

§         Speech Acts and Meaning

§         Classification of Speech Acts

§         Are Speech Acts Universal or Culture and Language – Specific?

§        How to Teach Speech Acts?

What is a Speech Act?

            A speech act is a minimal functional unit in human communication. Just as a word  (refusal) is the smallest free form found in language and a morpheme is the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning (-al in refuse-al makes it a noun), the basic unit of communication is a speech act (the speech act of refusal).

  

The Meaning of Speech Acts

According to Austin’s theory (1962), what we say has three kinds of meaning:

1.      propositional meaning – the literal meaning of what is said     

  It’s hot in here.

2.      illocutionary meaning – the social function of what is said                           

It’s hot in here’   could be:  

– an indirect request for someone to open the window                                                            

– an indirect refusal to close the window because someone is cold                                          

– a complaint implying that someone should know better than to keep the windows closed (expressed emphatically) 

3.      perlocutionary meaning – the effect of what is said 

 ‘It’s hot in here’ could result in someone opening the windows                                              

 

Classification of Speech Acts

Based on Austin’s (1962), and Searle’s (1969) theory, Cohen ( 1996) identifies five categories of speech acts based on the functions assigned to them.

Representatives Directives Expressives Comissives Declaratives
assertions   suggestions apologies promises decrees
claims requests complaint threats declarations
reports   commands thanks offers  

 

Speech Act Theory

Speech act theory attempts to explain how speakers use language to accomplish intended actions and how hearers infer intended meaning form what is said.  Although speech act studies are now considered a sub-discipline of cross-cultural pragmatics, they actually take their origin in the philosophy of language.

It was for too long the assumption of philosophers that the business of a ‘statement’ can only be to ‘describe’ some state of affairs, or to ‘state some fact’, which it must do either truly or falsely. (…) But now in recent years, many things, which would once have been accepted without question as ‘statements’ by both philosophers and grammarians have been scrutinized with new care. (…) It has come to be commonly held that many utterances which look like statements are either not intended at all, or only intended in part, to record or impart straight forward information about the facts (…). (Austin, 1962, p. 1)

Philosophers like Austin (1962), Grice (1957), and Searle (1965, 1969, 1975) offered basic insight into this new theory of linguistic communication based on the assumption that  “(…) the minimal units of human communication are not linguistic expressions, but rather the performance of certain kinds of acts, such as making statements, asking questions, giving directions, apologizing, thanking, and so on” (Blum-Kulka, House, & Kasper, 1989, p.2). Austin (1962) defines the performance of uttering words with a consequential purpose as “the performance of a locutionary act, and the study of utterances thus far and in these respects the study of locutions, or of the full units of speech” (p. 69). These units of speech are not tokens of the symbol or word or sentence but rather units of linguistic communication and it is “(…) the production of the token in the performance of the speech act that constitutes the basic unit of linguistic communication” (Searle, 1965, p.136). According to Austin’s theory, these functional units of communication have prepositional or locutionary meaning (the literal meaning of the utterance), illocutionary meaning (the social function of the utterance), and perlocutionary force (the effect produced by the utterance in a given context) (Cohen, 1996, p. 384).

 

Are Speech Acts Universal or Culture and Language – Specific?

Speech acts have been claimed by some to operate by universal pragmatic principles (Austin, (1962),  Searle (1969, 1975), Brown & Levinson (1978)). Others have shown them to vary in conceptualization and verbalization across cultures and languages (Wong, 1994; Wierzbicka, 1985). Although this debate has generated over three decades of research, only the last 15 years marked a shift from an intuitively based approach to an empirically based one, which “has focused on the perception and production of speech acts by learners of a second or foreign language (in the most cases, English as a second or foreign language, i.e., ESL and EFL) at varying stages of language proficiency and in different social interactions” (Cohen, 1996, p. 385).  Blum Kulka et. al., (1989) argue that there is a strong need to complement theoretical studies of speech acts with empirical studies, based on speech acts produced by native speakers of individual languages in strictly defined contexts.

The illocutionary choices embraced by individual languages reflect what Gumperz (1982) calls “cultural logic” (pp. 182-185). Consider the following passage:

The fact that two speakers whose sentences are quite grammatical can differ radically in their interpretation of each other’s verbal strategies indicates that conversational management does rest on linguistic knowledge. But to find out what that knowledge is we must abandon the existing views of communication which draw a basic distinction between cultural or social knowledge on the one hand and linguistic signaling processes on the other. (pp. 185-186)

Differences in “cultural logic” embodied in individual languages involve the implementation of various linguistic mechanisms.  As numerous studies have shown, these mechanisms are rather culture-specific and may cause breakdowns in inter-ethnic communication. Such communication breakdowns are largely due to a language transfer at the sociocultural level where cultural differences play a part in selecting among the potential strategies for realizing a given speech act. Hence the need to make the instruction of speech acts an instrumental component of every ESL/ EFL curriculum.

 

Why should ESL Students Learn to Perform Speech Acts?

When second language learners engage in conversations with native speakers, difficulties may arise due to their lack of mastery of the conversational norms involved in the production of speech acts. Such conversational difficulties may in turn cause breakdowns in interethnic communication (Gumperz, 1990). When the nonnative speakers violate speech act realization patterns typically used by native speakers of a target language, they often suffer the perennial risk of inadvertently violating conversational (and politeness) norms thereby forfeiting their claims to being treated by their interactants as social equals (Kasper, 1990, p. 193).

Communication difficulties result when conversationalists do not share the same knowledge of the subtle rules governing conversation. Scarcella (1990) ascribes high frequency of such difficulties to the fact that “nonnative speakers, when conversing, often transfer the conversational rules of their first language into the second” (p. 338). Scarcella provides the following example. (Bracketing indicates interruptions.)

1)    speaker A:     Mary’s invited us to lunch. Do you wanna go?

2)    speaker B:     Sure.     [I’m not busy right now.      [Why not?

3)    speaker A:                  [Good                                [I’ll come by in about thirty minutes

4)    speaker B:     Think  we  oughta  bring        [anything?

5)    speaker A:                                                  [No, but I’ll bring some wine anyway.

  (1990, p. 338)

 

In this exchange, the native speaker B inaccurately concluded that the nonnative speaker A is rude since like many Americans, he regards interruptions as impolite.

Rather than associate rudeness with A’s linguistic behavior, however, B associates rudeness with A herself. B’s reasoning might be as follows: A interrupts; interruptions are rude; therefore, A is rude. Such reasoning is unfortunate for A, who comes from Iran where interruptions may be associated with friendliness, indicating the conversationalist’s active involvement in the interaction. (Scarcella, 1990, p.338)

Learners who repeatedly experience conversational difficulties tend to cut themselves from speakers of the target community, not only withdrawing from them socially, but psychologically as well (Scarcella, 1990). “’Psychological distance’ or a ‘high filter’ might be related to a number of factors, including culture shock and cultural stress” (Scarcella, 1990, p. 343) All these factors ignite a cycle that eventually hinders second language acquisition.

  1. First, the learners experience conversational difficulties.

  2. Next, they become “clannish”, clinging to their own group.

  3. This limits their interaction with members of the target culture and increases solidarity with their own cultural group.

  4. That, in turn, creates social distance between themselves and the target group.

  5. The end result is that the second language acquisition is hindered since they don’t receive the input necessary for their language development. (Scarcella, 1990, p. 342)

 

How to Teach Speech Acts?

 

Cohen (1996) claims that the fact that speech acts reflect somewhat routinized language behavior helps learning in the sense that much of what is said is predictable.  For example, Wolfson & Manes, (1980) have found that adjectives nice or good (e.g., “That’s a nice shirt you’re wearing” or “it was a good talk you gave”) are used almost half the time when complimenting in English and beautiful, pretty, and great make up another 15 percent.

Yet despite the routinized nature of speech acts, there are still various strategies to choose form – depending on the sociocultural context – and often a variety of possible language forms for realizing these strategies, especially in the case of speech acts with four or more possible semantic formulas such as apologies and complaints. Target language learners may tend to respond the way they would in their native language and culture and find that their utterances are not at all appropriate for the target language and culture situation. (Cohen, 1996, p. 408)

At present, there is an increasing number of studies dealing with teaching speech act behavior in an ESL/ EFL classroom. Olshtein and Cohen (1990), for instance, conducted a study of apologies made by EFL learners in Israel who were taught a set of lessons on the strategies used by native English speakers to apologize. They found that situational features can indeed be taught in the foreign language classroom. Whereas before these apology lessons, the nonnative speakers’ apologies differed from the native English speakers’, after instruction, learners selected strategies, which were more native-like.

Scarcella (1990) provides second language instructors with a number of guidelines intended to reduce negative consequences of communication difficulties and increase the learners’ conversational competence through improving their motivation:

  1. Stress the advantages of conversing like a native speaker.

  2. Stress that it is not necessary to converse perfectly to communicate in the second language.

  3. Impress upon learners that they should not be overly concerned with communication difficulties.

  4. Help students accept communication difficulties as normal.

  5. Provide students with information about communication difficulties.

  6. Do not expect students to develop the conversational skills needed to overcome all communication difficulties.

  7. Provide communicative feedback regarding student success in conveying meaning and accomplishing communicative objectives.

  8. Teach students strategies to help them overcome communication difficulties in the real world. (1990, pp. 345-346)

 

Refusal Studies

Takahashi and Beebe (1987) investigated written refusals by native speakers of English, native speakers of Japanese, Japanese ESL students in the United States, and Japanese EFL students in Japan and found that there was a strong native language influence in the EFL context and negative transfer of negative speech act behavior occurring in the more advanced levels of ESL. The researchers claims that the advanced students had greater facility at speaking English which allowed them to express complex notions in Japanese like ‘being deeply honored’ to receive an invitation.

In another study, Robinson (1991) asked twelve native Japanese-speaking women to respond to a written discourse completion task calling for refusals of requests and invitations in English. He found that there was a sociocultural problem in the respondents’ refusals since Japanese women are brought up to say yes, or at least not to say no and thus the task of refusing was a difficult concept for them.

Yet another refusal study, undertaken by Tickle (1991), looked at pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals made by Japanese speakers in a business setting. Thirty-one Japanese men who all had at least five years of business experience (including a year in the United States) were asked to complete a discourse completion task (DCT) where hypothetical situations varied by turf (customer’s vs. the businessperson’s), relationship (positive, negative), status (higher or lower), and function (refusal to an invitation vs. refusal to a request). The results showed that refusals on a customer’s turf were more direct than those on the businessperson’s turf. They were also more direct when no prior relationship existed between the interlocutors. In refusals to invitation (e.g., to go drinking), lower-status interlocutors expressed more regret toward the higher-status one. In refusals to request (e.g., of co-workers), more negative willingness/ability (e.g., “I can’t”) and empathy occurred. Results of this particular study provided material for cross-cultural programs training American businesspeople to deal more effectively with Japanese clients.

 

Refusals in the Workplace as a Speech Event

A speech event is an identifiable type of discourse used in a particular speech situation. The speech event of refusing in the workplace can thus be described as the discourse associated with the entire interaction triggered by the speech act of refusal and placed in the work setting. 

 

S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G. Mnemonic
of the Speech Event 
 “Refusals in the Workplace”

(Adapted from: Meechan & Rees-Miller, 2001)

Component

Explanation

Sample Analysis

Setting or a locale
 

             Scene or a situation

Scientific information about where it occurred 
(place, time)

Los Angeles, 5 pm on May 21, 2004

Generic information about the social occasion

Business meeting

Participants

Who was there  
 (addressor/ addressee, performer/audience, questioner/answerer)

Addressor – Mr. Robertson, the manager  
Addressee – Doris, employee

Ends                       Outcomes   

                                 a Goals

Purpose of the event 
(exchange of goods, etc…)

Refusal

Purpose of the participants 
(impart knowledge, minimize price)

Addressor – to request from the employee  
Addressee – to refuse the request

Act sequences

Content and forms particular to its use

Content: refusal to a request that the employee stays in late to finish an important proposal

Key

.
Tone or mood  
.

 

Instrumentalities

Type of discourse or channel 
(spoken, written, recitation, etc.)

Spoken

Types of speech 
(dialect, style)

Formal standard business English

Norms                   Interaction

                   

                   a Interpretation

Conventions of the interaction

After addressing the employee, the manager makes a request, the employee says she would love to help, refuses politely and offers to come in early the next day

Normal interpretation

Employee recognizes that the manager’s is a little upset while the manager recognizes that the employee is making an attempt to offer an alternative solution to the problem

Genres

Category of event 
(poem, story, conversation)

Conversation

                                                                                             

References

Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and  apologies. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1978). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In E. N. Goody (Ed.), Questions and politeness: Strategies in social interactions (pp. 56-289). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, A. (1996) Speech Acts. In S.L. McKay, & N.H. Hornberger (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language teaching (pp. 383 – 420). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Grice, H.P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In A. Jaworski, & N. Coupland (Eds.), The discourse reader (pp. 76-87). New York: Routledge. 

Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Gumperz, J. (1990). The conversational analysis of interethnic communication. In R. C. Scarcella, E. S. Andersen, and S. D. Krashen (Eds.), Developing communicative competence in a second language: Series on issues in second language research (pp. 223-238). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. 

Kasper, G. (1990). Linguistic politeness: Current research issues. Journal of Pragmatics, 14,193-218. 

Meechan, M., & Rees-Miller, J. (2001). Language in social sontexts. In W. O’Grady, J.Archibald, M. Aronoff, & J. Rees-Miller (Eds.), Contemporary linguistics: An introduciotn. (Fourth edition). (pp. 537-590). New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s. 

Robinson, M. (1991). Introspective methodology in interlanguage pragmatics research. In G. Kasper (Ed.), Pragmatics of Japanese as native and target language (pp. 29-84). (Technical Report; Vol 3). Honolulu: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii. 

Scarcella, R. C. (1990). Communication difficulties in second language production, development, and instruction. In R. C. Scarcella, E.S. Andersen, & S. D. Krashen (Eds.), Developing communicative competence in a second language: Series on issues in second language research. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. 

Searle, J. (1965). What is a speech act? In P. P. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and social context (pp.136–154). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. 

Searle, J. (1969). Speech acts: Am essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Searle, J. (1975). Indirect speech acts. In P. Cole and J. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics, vol. 3: Speech Acts (pp. 59–82). New York. 

Takanashi, T., & Beebe, L. M. (1993). Cross-linguistic influence in the speech act of correction. In S. Blum-Kulka, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 138 – 157). New York: Oxford University Press. 

Tickle, A. L. (1991). Japanese refusals in a business setting. Papers in Applied Linguistics – Michigan, 6(2), 84–108.   

Wierzbicka, A. (1985).  Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts: Polish vs. English, Journal of Pragmatics, 9, 145–178. 

Wolfson, N., & Manes, J. (1980). The compliment as a social strategy. Papers in Linguistics, 13(3), 391–410. 

Wong, S. M. L. (1994). Imperatives in requests: Direct or impolite-observations from Chinese, Pragmatics, 4, 491–515.

 

 

 

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Great a Teacher?

What makes a great teacher?

Study after study shows the single most important factor determining the quality of the education a child receives is the quality of his teacher.

Related articles

Signs of a poor teacher

These are the warning signs that there may be a problem with your child’s teacher:

  • Your child complains that his teacher singles him out repetitively with negative remarks.
  • The teacher is the last one to arrive in the morning and the first to leave in the afternoon. He doesn’t return phone calls or respond to written communication.
  • Your child rarely brings work home from school.
  • Homework assignments are not returned.
  • The teacher does not send home frequent reports or communications to parents.
  • The teacher exhibits limited knowledge of the subject he is teaching.
  • Lessons lack organization and planning.
  • The teacher refuses to accept any input from parents.

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By Great Schools Staff

 

What makes a great teacher? Teaching is one of the most complicated jobs today. It demands broad knowledge of subject matter, curriculum, and standards; enthusiasm, a caring attitude, and a love of learning; knowledge of discipline and classroom management techniques; and a desire to make a difference in the lives of young people. With all these qualities required, it’s no wonder that it’s hard to find great teachers.

Here are some characteristics of great teachers

  • Great teachers set high expectations for all students. They expect that all students can and will achieve in their classroom, and they don’t give up on underachievers.
  • Great teachers have clear, written-out objectives. Effective teachers have lesson plans that give students a clear idea of what they will be learning, what the assignments are and what the grading policy is. Assignments have learning goals and give students ample opportunity to practice new skills. The teacher is consistent in grading and returns work in a timely manner.
  • Great teachers are prepared and organized. They are in their classrooms early and ready to teach. They present lessons in a clear and structured way. Their classrooms are organized in such a way as to minimize distractions.

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  • Great teachers engage students and get them to look at issues in a variety of ways. Effective teachers use facts as a starting point, not an end point; they ask “why” questions, look at all sides and encourage students to predict what will happen next. They ask questions frequently to make sure students are following along. They try to engage the whole class, and they don’t allow a few students to dominate the class. They keep students motivated with varied, lively approaches.
  • Great teachers form strong relationships with their students and show that they care about them as people. Great teachers are warm, accessible, enthusiastic and caring. Teachers with these qualities are known to stay after school and make themselves available to students and parents who need them. They are involved in school-wide committees and activities, and they demonstrate a commitment to the school.
  • Great teachers are masters of their subject matter. They exhibit expertise in the subjects they are teaching and spend time continuing to gain new knowledge in their field. They present material in an enthusiastic manner and instill a hunger in their students to learn more on their own.
  • Great teachers communicate frequently with parents. They reach parents through conferences and frequent written reports home. They don’t hesitate to pick up the telephone to call a parent if they are concerned about a student.

What No Child Left Behind means for teacher quality

The role of the teacher became an even more significant factor in education with the passage of The No Child Left Behind law in 2002.

Under the law, elementary school teachers must have a bachelor’s degree and pass a rigorous test in core curriculum areas. Middle and high school teachers must demonstrate competency in the subject area they teach by passing a test or by completing an academic major, graduate degree or comparable course work. These requirements already apply to all new hires.

Schools are required to tell parents about the qualifications of all teachers, and they must notify parents if their child is taught for more than four weeks by a teacher who is not highly qualified. Schools that do not comply risk losing federal funding.

Although the law required states to have highly qualified teachers in every core academic classroom by the end of the 2005-2006 school year, not a single state met that deadline.

The U.S. Department of Education then required states to show how they intended to fulfill the requirement. Most states satisfied the government that they were making serious efforts, but a few were told to come up with new plans.

 

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